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Table 2 EQ-5D-5L index scores for older adults during the second lockdowns

From: A national survey on COVID-19 second-wave lockdowns on older adults’ mental wellbeing, health-seeking behaviours and social outcomes across Australia

  National p-value* Victoria Rest of Australia
  n Median (IQR)   n Median (IQR) n Median (IQR)
All1 2,829 0.80 (0.72–0.88) - 253 0.84 (0.74–0.88) 2,576 0.80 (0.72–0.88)
Gender    0.009     
  Female 1,924 0.77 (0.71–0.88)   202 0.82 (0.74–0.88) 1,722 0.80 (0.74–0.88)
  Male 905 0.84 (0.74–0.88)   51 0.84 (0.77–1) 854 0.77 (0.71–0.88)
Age    0.099     
  55–64 1,256 0.80 (0.7–0.88)   102 0.84 (0.74–0.88) 1,154 0.80 (0.73–0.88)
  65–74 1,172 0.80 (0.72–0.88)   115 0.84 (0.74–0.88) 1,057 0.80 (0.71–0.88)
  75–84 354 0.80 (0.72–0.88)   33 0.84 (0.74–1) 321 0.80 (0.72–0.88)
  85+ 47 0.74 (0.67–0.88)   3 0.74 (0.70–1) 44 0.73 (0.65–0.88)
SES    < 0.001     
  1 (Most) 307 0.77 (0.98–0.85)   11 0.77 (0.74–0.84) 296 0.77 (0.68–0.85)
  2 549 0.77 (0.70–0.88)   50 0.84 (0.72–0.88) 499 0.77 (0.70–0.88)
  3 517 0.77 (0.72–0.88)   57 0.77 (0.71–0.88) 460 0.77 (0.72–0.88)
  4 461 0.80 (0.74–0.88)   66 0.82 (0.74–0.88) 395 0.80 (0.72–0.88)
  5 (least) 966 0.84 (0.74–0.88)   69 0.84 (0.77–0.88) 897 0.84 (0.74–0.88)
  Unknown 29 0.77 (0.75–0.88)   - - 29 0.77 (0.75–0.88)
Relationship status    < 0.001     
  Never married 200 0.77 (0.72–0.88)   23 0.88 (0.77–1) 177 0.77 (0.71–0.85)
  Married/De facto 1,842 0.82 (0.74–0.88)   151 0.84 (0.75–0.88) 1,691 0.81 (0.74–0.88)
  Divorced/ Separated but not divorced 507 0.77 (0.70–0.88)   51 0.77 (0.71–1) 456 0.77 (0.69–0.88)
  Widowed 278 0.77 (0.70–0.85)   28 0.80 (0.70–0.88) 250 0.77 (0.70–0.84)
  Unknown 2 0.73 (0.73–0.74)   - - 2 0.73 (0.73–0.74)
Country of Birth    0.016     
  Australia 2,101 0.79 (0.72–0.88)   201 0.84 (0.74–0.88) 1,900 0.77 (0.71–0.88)
  Other/Unknown 728 0.84 (0.74–0.88)   52 0.83 (0.72–0.88) 679 0.84 (0.74–0.88)
Education    < 0.001     
  Secondary School 521 0.77 (0.70–0.88)   40 0.84 (0.74–0.89) 481 0.77 (0.70–0.88)
  Trade qualification 125 0.77 (0.67–0.84)   5 0.77 (0.74–0.84) 120 0.77 (0.67–0.84)
  Certificate 258 0.77 (0.70–0.88)   21 0.84 (0.72–0.88) 237 0.77 (0.70–0.88)
  Diploma 565 0.77 (0.71–0.88)   59 0.77 (0.70–0.88) 506 0.77 (0.72–0.88)
  Bachelor’s Degree 667 0.80 (0.74–0.88)   54 0.78 (0.74–1) 613 0.80 (0.74–0.88)
  Post-graduate degree 693 0.84 (0.74–0.88)   74 0.84 (0.77–0.88) 619 0.84 (0.74–0.88)
Government benefits    < 0.001     
  Yes 1,233 0.77 (0.68–0.85)   119 0.80 (0.71–0.88) 1,114 0.77 (0.68–0.84)
  No 1,595 0.84 (0.75–1)   134 0.84 (0.77–0.88) 1,461 0.84 (0.75–1)
  Unknown 1 1   - - 1 1
Aged care services    < 0.001     
  Yes 148 0.69 (0.58–0.77)   14 0.72 (0.64–0.74) 134 0.68 (0.57–0.77)
  No 2,677 0.80 (0.74–0.88)   238 0.84 (0.75–0.88) 2,439 0.80 (0.74–0.88)
  Unknown 4 1 (0.90–1)   1 1 3 1 (0.80–1)
Health status
  Chronic heart disease    < 0.001     
  Yes 209 0.77 (0.68–0.84)   15 0.77 (0.68–0.84) 194 0.77 (0.68–0.84)
  No 2,620 0.80 (0.73–0.88)   238 0.84 (0.74–0.88) 2,382 0.80 (0.73–0.88)
Diabetes    < 0.001     
  Yes 279 0.77 (0.80–0.84)   21 0.74 (0.70–0.82) 258 0.77 (0.68–0.84)
  No 2,550 0.80 (0.73–0.88)   232 0.84 (0.75–0.89) 2,318 0.80 (0.73–0.88)
Stroke    < 0.001     
  Yes 70 0.75 (0.64–0.84)   5 0.84 (0.63–0.84) 65 0.74 (0.64–0.84)
  No 2,759 0.80 (0.72–0.88)   248 0.84 (0.74–0.88) 2,511 0.80 (0.72–0.88)
Sight impairment    < 0.001     
  Yes 653 0.77 (0.69–0.84)   67 0.77 (0.71–0.85) 586 0.77 (0.69–0.84)
  No 2,176 0.84 (0.74–0.88)   186 0.84 (0.74–0.91) 1,993 0.84 (0.74–0.88)
Hearing impairment    < 0.001     
  Yes 520 0.77 (0.68–0.84)   44 0.76 (0.66–0.84) 476 0.77 (0.68–0.84)
  No 2,309 0.80 (0.74–0.88)   209 0.84 (0.75–0.88) 2,100 0.80 (0.73–0.88)
COPD    < 0.001     
  Yes 125 0.73 (0.63–0.81)   6 0.64 (0.58–0.71) 119 0.74 (0.63–0.83)
  No 2,704 0.80 (0.73–0.88)   247 0.84 (0.74–0.88) 2,457 0.80 (0.73–0.88)
High blood pressure    < 0.001     
  Yes 1,103 0.77 (0.70–0.85)   86 0.83 (0.74–0.88) 1,017 0.77 (0.70–0.84)
  No 1,726 0.84 (0.74–0.88)   167 0.84 (0.74–1) 1,559 0.84 (0.74–0.88)
Asthma    < 0.001     
  Yes 395 0.77 (0.69–0.84)   37 0.77 (0.71–0.84) 358 0.77 (0.69–0.84)
  No 2,434 0.80 (0.73–0.88)   216 0.84 (0.74–0.95) 2,218 0.80 (0.73–0.88)
Depression/ Anxiety    < 0.001     
  Yes 597 0.73 (0.64–0.77)   60 0.74 (0.65–0.82) 537 0.73 (0.64–0.77)
  No 2,232 0.84 (0.74–1)   193 0.84 (0.77–1) 2,039 0.84 (0.74–1)
Covid-19 has had a positive impact on my personal relationships < 0.001     
  Strongly disagree 288 0.75 (0.65–0.84)   37 0.77 (0.66–0.84) 251 0.75 (0.65–0.84)
  Disagree 555 0.77 (0.70–0.88)   36 0.82 (0.75–0.88) 519 0.77 (0.68–0.88)
  Neutral 1,074 0.84 (0.74–1)   90 0.84 (0.75–1) 984 0.84 (0.74–1)
  Agree 616 0.84 (0.74–0.88)   60 0.84 (0.75–0.88) 556 0.80 (0.74–0.88)
  Strongly agree 246 0.84 (0.74–1)   28 0.85 (0.77–0.88) 218 0.84 (0.74–1)
  Not sure 15 0.68 (0.53–0.83)   1 0.24 14 0.68 (0.53–083)
  Missing 35 0.84 (0.74–0.91)   1 0.74 34 0.84 (0.74–0.91)
Covid-19 has had a positive impact on my social relationships < 0.001     
  Strongly disagree 330 0.75 (0.65–0.84)   37 0.77 (0.70–0.85) 293 0.75 (0.65–0.84
  Disagree 833 0.77 (0.71–0.88)   72 0.84 (0.77–0.88) 761 0.77 (0.71–0.88)
  Neutral 844 0.84 (0.75–1)   55 0.84 (0.76–1) 789 0.84 (0.74–1)
  Agree 601 0.84 (0.74–0.88)   64 0.84 (0.74–0.94) 537 0.84 (0.74–0.88)
  Strongly agree 178 0.77 (0.70–0.88)   21 0.77 (0.73–0.88) 157 0.77 (0.70–0.88)
  Not sure 12 0.70 (0.68–0.84)   3 0.84 90.66–1) 9 0.70 (0.68–0.77)
  Missing 31 0.84 (0.74–0.91)   1 0.74 30 0.84 (0.74–0.91)
Covid-19 has had a positive impact on my mental health < 0.001     
  Strongly disagree 338 0.75 (0.64–0.84)   42 0.77 (0.65–0.84) 296 0.75 (0.63–0.84)
  Disagree 921 0.77 (0.70–0.88)   81 0.84 (0.75–0.88) 840 0.77 (0.69–0.88)
  Neutral 1,126 0.84 (0.77–0.84)   82 0.84 (0.80–1) 1,044 0.84 (0.77–1)
  Agree 286 0.80 (0.74–0.91)   37 0.77 (0.68–1) 249 0.80 (0.74–0.91)
  Strongly agree 101 0.77 (0.71–0.88)   8 0.84 (0.76–0.88) 93 0.77 (0.71–0.88)
  Not sure 19 0.77 (0.68–0.88)   2 0.82 (0.64–1) 17 0.77 (0.68–0.88)
  Missing 38 0.82 (0.71–0.91)   1 0.74 37 0.84 (0.71–0.91)
Covid-19 has had a positive impact on my physical health < 0.001     
  Strongly disagree 301 0.75 (0.65–0.84)   36 0.77 (0.66–0.86) 265 0.75 (0.65–0.84)
  Disagree 826 0.77 (0.68–0.84)   69 0.77 (0.71–0.88) 757 0.77 (0.68–0.84)
  Neutral 991 0.84 (0.75–1)   68 0.84 (0.77–1) 923 0.84 (0.74–1)
  Agree 481 0.84 (0.77–0.91)   52 0.84 (0.77–1) 429 0.84 (0.75–0.91)
  Strongly agree 183 0.84 (0.74–1)   26 0.84 (0.68–0.88) 157 0.84 (0.75–1)
  Not sure 10 0.70 (0.68–0.84)   1 1 9 0.70 (0.68–0.77)
  Missing 37 0.80 (0.71–0.88)   1 0.74 36 0.82 (0.71–0.89)
Covid-19 has had a positive impact on my lifestyle < 0.001     
  Strongly disagree 324 0.75 (0.66–0.84)   36 0.76 (0.65–0.84) 288 0.75 (0.66–0.84)
  Disagree 861 0.77 (0.70–0.88)   79 0.77 (0.72–0.88) 782 0.77 (0.69–0.88)
  Neutral 952 0.84 (0.75–1)   69 0.84 (0.77–1) 883 0.84 (0.74–1)
  Agree 482 0.84 (0.74–0.88)   46 0.85 (0.77–1) 436 0.81 (0.74–0.88)
  Strongly agree 161 0.77 (0.72–0.88)   21 0.77 (0.71–0.88) 140 0.77 (0.73–0.88)
  Not sure 12 0.70 (0.59–0.77)   1 0.64 11 0.70 (0.53–0.80)
  Missing 37 0.84 (0.74–0.91)   1 0.74 36 0.84 (0.73–0.95)
  1. 1Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed. Missing data for 161 respondents; see Table 1 for more detail. *Level of Significance is p < 0.0021, highlighted in bold