Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive Statistics of NH residents with advanced cognitive impairment at the incident assessment

From: Advanced cognitive impairment among older nursing home residents

  AD (N = 12,093) ADRD (N = 22,400) Difference
Mean (%) (95% CI) Mean (%) (95% CI) p-value
Socio-demographics
 Age: 65-74 10.51 (9.96, 11.06) 11.60 (11.18, 12.02) -0.01**
 Age: 75-84 38.34 (37.47, 39.2) 33.36 (32.74, 33.98) 0.05**
 Age: 85-94 45.55 (44.66, 46.43) 46.38 (45.72, 47.03) -0.01
 Age: 95+ 5.61 (5.2, 6.02) 8.66 (8.29, 9.03) -0.03**
 Married 36.01 (35.14, 36.87) 30.77 (30.16, 31.38) 0.05**
 Caucasian 81.55 (80.86, 82.24) 77.42 (76.88, 77.97) 0.04**
 Am. Ind. or Alaskan 0.20 (0.12, 0.28) 0.29 (0.22, 0.36) -0.00
 Asian 1.27 (1.07, 1.47) 2.16 (1.97, 2.35) -0.01**
 African American 9.76 (9.23, 10.29) 12.65 (12.21, 13.08) -0.03**
 Hispanic 5.56 (5.15, 5.97) 5.27 (4.97, 5.56) 0.00
 Native Haw./Pac.Isl. 0.21 (0.13, 0.29) 0.39 (0.31, 0.47) -0.00**
Comorbidities
 Type 2 Diabetes 24.28 (23.52, 25.05) 28.88 (28.29, 29.48) -0.05**
 Stroke 12.48 (11.89, 13.07) 21.57 (21.03, 22.11) -0.09**
 Hypertension 71.12 (70.32, 71.93) 74.83 (74.26, 75.4) -0.04**
 Depression 45.64 (44.75, 46.53) 41.52 (40.88, 42.17) 0.04**
 Heart Failure 15.16 (14.52, 15.8) 19.44 (18.92, 19.96) -0.04**
 COPD 13.69 (13.07, 14.3) 16.80 (16.31, 17.29) -0.03**
Functional Status (ADL 3+)
Difficulties with…
  Walking 82.22 (81.54, 82.9) 88.32 (87.9, 88.74) -0.06**
  Eating 63.76 (62.91, 64.62) 66.35 (65.73, 66.97) -0.03**
  Bed mobility 86.58 (85.98, 87.19) 90.67 (90.29, 91.05) -0.04**
  Transfer 87.06 (86.46, 87.65) 91.67 (91.30, 92.03) -0.05**
  Locomotion 79.67 (78.96, 80.39) 86.34 (85.89, 86.79) -0.07**
  Dressing 94.07 (93.65, 94.49) 95.20 (94.92, 95.48) -0.01**
  Toilet 94.07 (93.65, 94.49) 95.65 (95.38, 95.91) -0.02**
  Hygiene 93.48 (93.04, 93.92) 94.48 (94.18, 94.78) -0.01**
Other Conditions
  Bowel incontinence 87.68 (87.09, 88.27) 88.85 (88.43, 89.26) -0.01**
  Urinary incontinence 95.12 (94.71, 95.52) 95.22 (94.92, 95.53) -0.00
  Shortness of breath 8.16 (7.67, 8.65) 11.83 (11.4, 12.25) -0.04**
  Pneumonia 7.03 (6.57, 7.49) 9.00 (8.62, 9.37) -0.02**
  Urinary tract infect. 17.05 (16.38, 17.72) 19.45 (18.93, 19.97) -0.02**
  Hip fracture 6.29 (5.86, 6.73) 5.93 (5.62, 6.24) 0.00
  Weight loss 17.38 (16.71, 18.06) 18.39 (17.89, 18.9) -0.01*
  1. Note: Mean and standard deviation reported for a list of covariates at the time of the incident advanced cognitive impairment assessment. *, and **, describe statistically significant difference between means at a p-value smaller or equal to 0.05 and 0.01, respectively, computed by conducting a two-sided equality of means t-test between advanced AD and ADRD groups
  2. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, ADRD related dementias, ADL activities of daily living, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NH nursing home