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Table 1 Comparison of participant characteristics in the eating-dependent and eating-independent groups (N = 117)

From: Factors associated with eating performance in older adults with dementia in long-term care facilities: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Categories Independent (n = 80) Dependent (n = 37) Total (N = 117) χ2 or t p
n (%), Mean (SD)
Age (year)   85.85 (5.99) 87.05 (6.68) 86.23 (6.21) −0.974 .332
Sex Male 10 (12.50) 6 (16.22) 16 (13.63) 0.296 .773
Female 70 (87.50) 31 (83.78) 101 (86.32)   
Marital status Married 8 (10.00) 4 (10.81) 12 (10.26) 1.918 .481
Bereaved 68 (85.00) 33 (89.19) 101 (86.32)   
Others 4 (5.00) 0 (0.00) 4 (3.42)   
Level of LTC service Severe 15 (18.75) 13 (35.13) 28 (23.93) 3.964 .142
Moderate 34 (42.50) 14 (37.84) 48 (41.03)   
Mild 31 (38.75) 10 (27.03) 41 (35.04)   
Length of stay (months)   29.76 (25.77) 27.38 (24.60) 29.01 (25.32) 0.472 .638
Comorbidities   2.84 (1.13) 2.24 (0.92) 2.65 (1.10) 2.793 .006
Cognitive function   13.41 (4.66) 9.35 (5.59) 12.13 (5.30) 4.108 <.001
Physical capability   12.89 (2.87) 8.38 (4.96) 11.46 (4.20) 6.196 <.001
Grip strength (kg)   8.40 (6.89) 4.91 (4.43) 7.30 (6.41) 2.819 .006
BPSD   5.90 (4.82) 5.38 (4.74) 5.74 (4.78) 0.551 .583
Depression   5.34 (4.53) 4.65 (4.17) 5.12 (4.41) 0.783 .435
  1. LTC Long-term Care, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, PCS Physical Capability Scale, BPSD Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, NPI-Q Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire, CSDD Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia