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Table 3 Bivariate and logistic regression estimates for cognitive impairment by background characteristics among older adults in India

From: Association of late-life depression with cognitive impairment: evidence from a cross-sectional study among older adults in India

Variables % p < 0.05 AOR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI)
Model 1 Model 2
Depression   *   
  No 13.23   Ref.  
  Yes 18.26   1.224** (1.015–1.476)  
Place of residence   *   
  Urban 6.69   Ref.  
  Rural 16.67   2.120*** (1.732–2.595)  
Age (in years)   *   
  Young old (60–69) 10.03   Ref. Ref.
  Old old (70–79) 16.77   1.635*** (1.395–1.916) 1.634*** (1.395–1.915)
  Oldest old (80+) 27.76   2.922*** (2.396–3.564) 2.921*** (2.396–3.562)
Sex   *   
  Male 7.14   Ref. Ref.
  Female 20.03   2.264*** (1.947–2.634) 2.266*** (1.948–2.636)
Marital status   *   
  Currently in union 9.68   Ref. Ref.
  Not in union 20.77   1.536*** (1.307–1.806) 1.536*** (1.306–1.805)
Living arrangement   *   
  Alone 19.07   Ref. Ref.
  With spouse 11.92   1.605*** (1.191–2.163) 1.604*** (1.190–2.162)
  Others 13.73   1.174 (0.927–1.487) 1.174 (0.927–1.487)
Working status   *   
  Never/Not working 17.08   Ref. Ref.
  Currently working 9.98   0.773*** (0.662–0.903) 0.773*** (0.662–0.903)
  Retired 2.24   0.526*** (0.333–0.833) 0.527*** (0.333–0.833)
Community involvement     
  No 14.12 * Ref. Ref.
  Yes 5.24   0.604*** (0.433–0.842) 0.603*** (0.432–0.842)
Physical activity     
  No 14.87 * Ref. Ref.
  Yes 6.85   0.741* (0.536–1.025) 0.740* (0.535–1.025)
Educational status   *   
  No/primary education 18.79   Ref. Ref.
  Secondary 1.05   0.0879*** (0.0600–0.129) 0.0881*** (0.0601–0.129)
  Higher 0.42   0.0616*** (0.0254–0.149) 0.0616*** (0.0254–0.149)
MPCE quintile   *   
  Poorest 18.55   Ref. Ref.
  Poorer 15.75   0.905 (0.757–1.082) 0.906 (0.758–1.082)
  Middle 12.46   0.716*** (0.600–0.853) 0.716*** (0.601–0.854)
  Richer 10.88   0.645*** (0.530–0.785) 0.645*** (0.530–0.786)
  Richest 9.81   0.678*** (0.513–0.896) 0.679*** (0.514–0.897)
Religion   *   
  Hindu 13.37   Ref. Ref.
  Muslim 14.62   1.261* (1.007–1.579) 0.892 (0.714–1.113)
  Others 15.72   1.121 (0.898–1.399) 1.127 (0.837–1.515)
Caste   *   
  SC/ST 19.74   Ref. Ref.
  OBC 12.03   0.643*** (0.554–0.747) 1.464*** (1.230–1.742)
  Others 10.8   0.683*** (0.574–0.813) 0.941 (0.789–1.123)
Region   *   
  North 13.02   Ref. Ref.
  Central 14.27   1.007 (0.823–1.234) 1.009 (0.824–1.235)
  East 14.78   1.099 (0.906–1.333) 1.100 (0.907–1.334)
  Northeast 15.35   1.317** (1.061–1.635) 1.317** (1.061–1.635)
  West 10.97   0.974 (0.781–1.213) 0.975 (0.782–1.214)
  South 15.02   1.541*** (1.256–1.892) 1.542*** (1.257–1.893)
Depression # Place of residence
  No # Urban     Ref.
  Yes # Urban     1.390 (0.818–2.362)
  No # Rural     2.148*** (1.729–2.668)
  Yes # Rural     2.579*** (1.951–3.409)
Total 13.66    
  1. %: Percentage; Ref: Reference category; *if p < 0.05, **if p < 0.01, ***if p < 0.001; AOR Odds Ratio Adjusted for all covariates; MPCE Monthly per capita consumption expenditure