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Table 1 Sample characteristics by previous falls and fear of falling status in Year 1 (n, %)

From: Fear of falling is as important as multiple previous falls in terms of limiting daily activities: a longitudinal study

 Variables All Previous Falls in Year 1 Fear of Falling in Year 1
No One fall Multiple falls P value No Yes P value
Age (y)      0.238    0.039
 65-79 719 (83.2) 588 (81.8) 96 (13.4) 35 (4.9)   659 (91.7) 60 (8.3)  
 80-90+ 145 (16.8) 126 (86.9) 12 (8.3) 7 (4.8)   125 (86.2) 20 (13.8)  
Sex      0.106    0.012
 Female 371 (42.9) 295 (79.5) 54 (14.6) 22 (5.9)   326 (87.9) 45 (12.1)  
 Male 493 (57.1) 419 (85.0) 54 (11.0) 20 (4.1)   458 (92.9) 35 (7.1)  
Education      0.104    0.180
 Less than high school 133 (15.5) 106 (79.7) 20 (15.0) 7 (5.3)   125 (94.0) 8 (6.0)  
 High school graduates 209 (24.3) 173 (82.8) 32 (15.3) 4 (1.91)   184 (88.0) 25 (12.0)  
 Some college or vocational school 195 (22.7) 169 (86.7) 16 (8.2) 10 (5.1)   174 (89.2) 21 (10.8)  
 Bachelor or higher 322 (37.5) 262 (81.4) 40 (12.4) 20 (6.2)   297 (92.2) 25 (7.8)  
Race      0.079    0.083
 White, non-Hispanic 683 (79.1) 562 (82.3) 84 (12.3) 37 (5.4)   618 (90.5) 65 (9.5)  
 Black, non-Hispanic 127 (14.7) 111 (87.4) 14 (11.0) 2 (1.6)   121 (95.3) 6 (4.7)  
 Hispanic 30 (3.5) 23 (76.7) 7 (23.3) 0   25 (83.3) 5 (16.7)  
 Indian/Asian/Native/Hawaii/Other 24 (2.8) 18 (75.0) 3 (12.5) 3 (12.5)   20 (83.3) 4 (16.7)  
Living      0.435    0.317
 Alone 220 (25.6) 182 (82.7) 29 (13.2) 9 (4.1)   197 (89.6) 23 (10.5)  
 With spouse/partner only 482 (56.1) 394 (81.7) 62 (12.9) 26 (5.4)   442 (91.7) 40 (8.3)  
 With others only 77 (9.0) 61 (79.2) 10 (13.0) 6 (7.8)   66 (85.7) 11 (14.3)  
 With spouse/partner and with others 81 (9.4) 73 (90.1) 7 (8.6) 1 (1.2)   75 (92.6) 6 (7.4)  
BMI      0.619    0.123
 Normal 660 (77.5) 542 (82.1) 85 (12.9) 33 (5.0)   605 (91.7) 55 (8.3)  
 Obesity 192 (22.5) 163 (84.9) 22 (11.5) 7 (3.7)   169 (88.0) 23 (12.0)  
Smoking      0.046    0.572
 No 796 (92.1) 664 (83.2) 93 (11.7) 39 (4.9)   721 (90.6) 75 (9.4)  
 Yes 68 (7.9) 50 (73.5) 15 (22.1) 3 (4.4)   63 (92.7) 5 (7.4)  
Vigorous activities      0.643    0.179
 No 392 (45.4) 321 (81.9) 49 (12.5) 22 (5.6)   350 (89.3) 42 (10.7)  
 Yes 472 (54.6) 393 (83.3) 59 (12.5) 20 (4.2)   434 (92.0) 38 (8.1)  
Number of chronic illnesses      0.334    0.043
 No disease 157 (18.2) 135 (86.0) 14 (8.9) 8 (5.1)   149 (94.9) 8 (5.1)  
 1~3 601 (69.6) 493 (82.0) 82 (13.6) 26 (4.3)   544 (90.5) 57 (9.5)  
 ≥ 4 106 (12.3) 86 (81.1) 12 (11.3) 8 (7.6)   91 (85.9) 15 (14.2)  
Hospitalization      0.213    0.872
 No hospitalization 762 (88.2) 636 (83.5) 91 (11.9) 35 (4.6)   691 (90.7) 71 (9.3)  
 At least one hospitalization 102 (11.8) 78 (76.5) 17 (16.7) 7 (6.9)   93 (91.2) 9 (8.8)  
Depression      0.006    0.292
 No depression 809 (93.9) 676 (83.6) 93 (11.5) 40 (4.9)   737 (91.1) 72 (8.9)  
 Depression 53 (6.2) 37 (69.8) 14 (26.4) 2 (3.8)   46 (86.8) 7 (13.2)  
Cognitive function      0.877    0.339
 No dementia 789 (91.3) 650 (82.4) 99 (12.6) 40 (5.1)   718 (91) 71 (9)  
 Possible dementia 60 (6.9) 51 (85) 7 (11.7) 2 (3.33)   54 (90) 6 (10)  
 Probable dementia 15 (1.7) 13 (86.7) 2 (13.3) 0   12 (80) 3 (20)