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Table 1 Features of participants with diabetic kidney disease without and with different severities of frailty

From: Frailty increases the risk for developing urinary tract infection among 79,887 patients with diabetic mellitus and chronic kidney disease

  Total
(n = 79,887)
No FRAIL item
(n = 28,832)
1 FRAIL item
(n = 40,216)
2 FRAIL items
(n = 10,189)
≥ 3 FRAIL items
(n = 650)
p-value*
Baseline clinical profiles       
Age (years) 59.6 ± 14.0 52.5 ± 12.4 62.9 ± 13.3 65.9 ± 12.9 69.9 ± 12.5 < 0.001
Sex (Female %) 24,240 (30.3) 7,528 (26.1) 12,939 (32.2) 3,560 (34.9) 213 (32.8) < 0.001
Obesity (%) 1,397 (1.8) 496 (1.7) 727 (1.8) 169 (1.7) 5 (0.8) 0.167
Alcoholism (%) 1,161 (1.5) 435 (1.5) 540 (1.3) 166 (1.6) 20 (3.1) < 0.001
Smoking (%) 667 (0.8) 208 (0.7) 334 (0.8) 115 (1.1) 10 (1.5) < 0.001
Diabetic severitya 0.8 ± 1.2 0.5 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 1.3 1.2 ± 1.4 1.5 ± 1.4 < 0.001
Morbidity profile       
Hypertension (%) 55,620 (69.6) 11,667 (40.5) 34,242 (85.2) 9,129 (89.6) 582 (89.5) < 0.001
Hyperlipidemia (%) 43,179 (54.1) 14,205 (49.3) 22,589 (56.2) 6,029 (59.2) 356 (54.8) < 0.001
ACS (%) 21,019 (26.3) 2,411 (8.4) 13,927 (34.6) 4,356 (42.8) 325 (50.0) < 0.001
Atrial fibrillation (%) 10,544 (13.2) 1,271 (4.4) 6,765 (16.8) 2,328 (22.9) 180 (27.7) < 0.001
PVD (%) 2,208 (2.8) 393 (1.4) 1,264 (3.1) 516 (5.1) 35 (5.4) < 0.001
Cerebrovascular disease (%) 14,225 (17.8) 294 (1.0) 10,372 (25.8) 3,266 (32.1) 293 (45.1) < 0.001
Heart failure (%) 8,072 (10.1) 161 (0.6) 5,979 (14.9) 1,792 (17.6) 140 (21.5) < 0.001
COPD (%) 11,831 (14.8) 410 (1.4) 8,238 (20.5) 2,930 (28.8) 253 (38.9) < 0.001
Malignancy (%) 6,528 (8.2) 685 (2.4) 4,385 (10.9) 1,347 (13.2) 111 (17.1) < 0.001
Chronic liver disease (%) 30,130 (37.7) 9,684 (33.6) 15,229 (37.9) 4,888 (48.0) 329 (50.6) < 0.001
Stage 5 CKD (%) 1,401 (1.8) 350 (1.2) 838 (2.1) 203 (2.0) 10 (1.5) < 0.001
Parkinsonism (%) 1,239 (1.6) 99 (0.3) 748 (1.9) 337 (3.3) 55 (8.5) < 0.001
Mental disorders (%) 13,792 (17.3) 2,669 (9.3) 7,809 (19.4) 3,059 (30.0) 255 (39.2) < 0.001
Osteoarthritis (any site) (%) 25,665 (32.1) 3,952 (13.7) 15,897 (39.5) 5,384 (52.8) 432 (66.5) < 0.001
Gout (%) 24,840 (31.1) 6,146 (21.3) 14,212 (35.3) 4,201 (41.2) 281 (43.2) < 0.001
Hypoglycemia events (%) 204 (0.3) 37 (0.1) 109 (0.3) 52 (0.5) 5 (0.8) < 0.001
CCI 3.3 ± 2.1 2.4 ± 1.4 3.7 ± 2.1 4.3 ± 2.3 5.1 ± 2.5 < 0.001
Concomitant medications      
ACEi (%) 27,459 (34.4) 8,596 (29.8) 14,888 (37.0) 3,751 (36.8) 224 (34.5) < 0.001
Allopurinol (%) 5,090 (6.4) 1,216 (4.2) 3,013 (7.5) 805 (7.9) 56 (8.6) < 0.001
Anti-depressants (%) 14,294 (17.9) 3,852 (13.4) 7,792 (19.4) 2,493 (24.5) 157 (24.2) < 0.001
Anti-psychotics (%) 17,513 (21.9) 4,972 (17.2) 9,331 (23.2) 2,987 (29.3) 223 (34.3) < 0.001
ARB (%) 38,331 (48.0) 11,298 (39.2) 21,549 (53.6) 5,196 (51.0) 288 (44.3) < 0.001
Aspirin (%) 31,476 (39.4) 7,866 (27.3) 18,473 (45.9) 4,843 (47.5) 294 (45.2) < 0.001
Benzodiazepine (%) 37,876 (47.4) 11,004 (38.2) 20,499 (51.0) 5,997 (58.9) 376 (57.9) < 0.001
β-blockers (%) 36,936 (46.2) 10,138 (35.2) 21,113 (52.5) 5,368 (52.7) 317 (48.8) < 0.001
Clopidogrel (%) 5,905 (7.4) 1,029 (3.6) 3,852 (9.6) 968 (9.5) 56 (8.6) < 0.001
COX-II inhibitor (%) 20,262 (25.4) 4,224 (14.7) 12,094 (30.1) 3,683 (36.2) 261 (40.2) < 0.001
Fibrate (%) 16,717 (20.9) 6,431 (22.3) 8,209 (20.4) 1,979 (19.4) 98 (15.1) < 0.001
NSAID (%) 70,560 (88.3) 25,140 (87.2) 35,772 (89.0) 9,096 (89.3) 552 (84.9) < 0.001
Statin (%) 36,345 (45.5) 13,115 (45.5) 18,677 (46.4) 4,328 (42.5) 225 (34.6) < 0.001
Warfarin (%) 2,172 (2.7) 335 (1.2) 1,465 (3.6) 349 (3.4) 23 (3.5) < 0.001
Anti-diabetic medications       
α-glucosidase inhibitor (%) 12,937 (16.2) 5,186 (18.0) 6,298 (15.7) 1,391 (13.7) 62 (9.5) < 0.001
Biguanide (%) 44,897 (56.2) 18,501 (64.2) 21,211 (52.7) 4,945 (48.5) 240 (36.9) < 0.001
DPP4 inhibitors (%) 8,324 (10.4) 3,753 (13.0) 3,784 (9.4) 755 (7.4) 32 (4.9) < 0.001
Insulin (%) 9,990 (12.5) 4,152 (14.4) 4,665 (11.6) 1,110 (10.9) 63 (9.7) < 0.001
Meglitinide (%) 9,966 (12.5) 3,815 (13.2) 4,967 (12.4) 1,121 (11.0) 63 (9.7) < 0.001
Sulfonylurea (%) 42,621 (53.4) 17,628 (61.1) 20,123 (50.0) 4,646 (45.6) 224 (34.5) < 0.001
Thiazolidinedione (%) 9,249 (11.6) 4,408 (15.3) 4,007 (10.0) 796 (7.8) 38 (5.9) < 0.001
Major treatment procedures within 1 year      
Coronary revascularization (%) 1,260 (1.6) 104 (0.4) 943 (2.3) 204 (2.0) 9 (1.4) < 0.001
Cardiac surgery (any) (%) 2,116 (2.7) 161 (0.6) 1,562 (3.9) 372 (3.7) 21 (3.2) < 0.001
Any hospitalization (%) 29,218 (36.6) 7,779 (27.0) 16,433 (40.9) 4,644 (45.6) 362 (55.7) < 0.001
  1. ACEi angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ACS acute coronary syndrome, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COX cyclo-oxygenase, DPP4 dipeptidyl peptidase 4, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, PVD peripheral vascular disease
  2. * Compared between 0, 1, 2, and ≥ 3 items groups, using the analysis of variance (ANOVA)
  3. a Based on the adapted diabetes complications severity index (aDCSI)