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Table 1 Comparison of pain domains and items of American Geriatrics Society and PainChek®

From: Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of PainChek® in UK Aged Care Residents with advanced dementia

Pain Behaviour Domains and Items
AGS[19] PainChek® [26]
Facial expression
Slight frown; sad, frightened face
Grimacing, wrinkled forehead, closed or tightened eyes
Any distorted expression
Rapid blinking
The Face (9 items based on FACS allowing automated analysis)
Brow lowering (AU 4)
Cheek raising (AU 6)
Tightening of eyelids (AU7)
Wrinkling of nose (AU 9)
Raising upper lip (AU 10)
Lulling of corner lip (AU 12)
Horizontal mouth stretch (AU 20)
Parting lips (AU 25)
Closing eyes (AU 43)
Sighing, moaning, groaning
Grunting, chanting, calling out
Noisy breathing
Asking for help
Verbally abusive
The Voice (9 items)
Noisy sounds e.g. ouch, ah
Requesting help repeatedly
Loud talk
Body movements
Rigid, tense body posture, guarding Fidgeting
Increased pacing, rocking
Restricted movement
Gait or mobility changes
The Movement (7 items)
Altered or random leg/arm movement
Guarding/touching of body parts
Moving away
Abnormal sitting/standing/walking
Changes in interpersonal interactions
Aggressive, combative, resisting care Decreased social interactions
Socially inappropriate, disruptive Withdrawn
The Behaviour (7 items)
Introvert (unsocial) or altered behaviour
Verbally offensive
Fear or extreme dislike of touch, people
Inappropriate behaviour
Distressed behaviours.
Changes in activity patterns or routines
Refusing food, appetite change
Increase in rest periods
Sleep, rest pattern changes
Sudden cessation of common routines Increased wandering
The Activity (4 items)
Resisting care
Prolonged resting
Altered sleep
Altered routine
Mental status change
Crying or tears
Increased confusion
Irritability or distress
The Body (6 items)
Profuse sweating
Pale/flushed (red faced)
Rapid breathing
Painful injuries
Painful medical conditions