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Table 2 Analysis of primary outcome, knee-extension strength (n = 21)

From: Feasibility and preliminary effect of anabolic steroids in addition to strength training and nutritional supplement in rehabilitation of patients with hip fracture: a randomized controlled pilot trial (HIP-SAP1 trial)

Primary outcome Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Within-group difference
Mean (95% CI)
Between-group difference Mean (95% CI)
Modified intention-to-treat
  INT
(n = 11)
CON
(n = 10)
INT
(n = 11)
CON
(n = 10)
INT
(n = 11)
CON
(n = 10)
 
 Strength, Fractured (Nm/kg) 0.56 (0.38) 0.72 (0.36) 1.17 (0.46) 1.23 (0.39) 0.61 (0.34;0.88) 0.50 (0.21;0.79) 0.11 (− 0.25; 0.48)
 Strength, non-fractured (Nm/kg) 1.07 (0.45) 1.27 (0.26) 1.35 (0.39) 1.40 (0.39) 0.28 (0.20;0.37) 0.13
(− 0.07;0.32)
0.16 (− 0.05; 0.36)
 Strength, fractured % non-fractured (%) 50.5 (21.6) 59.4 (31.0) 84.6 (15.4) 89.1 (16.2) 34.1 (16.5;51.6) 29.7
(9.0;50.3)
4.4 (−20.7; 29.5)
Per protocol
Exercisea (n = 8) (n = 10) (n = 8) (n = 10) (n = 8) (n = 10)  
 Strength, Fractured (Nm/kg) 0.62 (0.42) 0.73 (0.37) 1.35 (0.40) 1.23 (0.39) 0.72 (0.42;1.03) 0.50 (0.21;0.79) 0.23 (−0.16; 0.61)
 Strength, non-fractured (Nm/kg) 1.15 (0.50) 1.27 (0.26) 1.45 (0.40) 1.40 (0.39) 0.29 (0.19;0.40) 0.13 (− 0.07;0.32) 0.17 (− 0.04; 0.37)
Injections (n = 7) (n = 9) (n = 7) (n = 9) (n = 7) (n = 9)  
 Strength, Fractured (Nm/kg) 0.36 (0.17) 0.69 (0.37) 1.14 (0.45) 1.25 (0.40) 0.78 (0.47;1.09) 0.56 (0.26;0.85) 0.22 (−0.17;0.61)
 Strength, non-fractured (Nm/kg) 1.00 (0.48) 1.29 (0.26) 1.33 (0.39) 1.39 (0.41) 0.33 (0.23;0.42) 0.10
(−0.11;0.31)
0.22 (0.01;0.44)*
Exercise + injections (n = 5) (n = 9) (n = 5) (n = 9) (n = 5) (n = 9)  
 Strength, Fractured (Nm/kg) 0.38 (0.17) 0.69 (0.37) 1.27 (0.48) 1.25 (0.40) 0.89 (0.49;1.29) 0.56 (0.26;0.85) 0.34 (−0.10;0.77)
 Strength, non-fractured (Nm/kg) 1.05 (0.57) 1.29 (0.26) 1.36 (0.47) 1.39 (0.41) 0.32 (0.18;0.46) 0.10 (−0.11;0.31) 0.22 (−0.07;0.50)
  1. Cases removed if adherence below 75% for exercise (pre-defined) and 80% for injections (pre-defined as 100% but changed to 80% as this was reached by only one missing injection)
  2. INT intervention (anabolic group), CON control group
  3. a 3 participants non adherent to exercise due to Covid-19 lock-down
  4. * P = 0.046 (Sattertwaite due to unequal variance)