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Table 7 Summary of previous studies on factor structure of the geriatric depression scale with 30 items

From: Is geriatric depression scale a valid instrument to screen depression in Chinese community-dwelling elderly?

First author Analysis Sample size (n) and description Components, n Component names and items Explained variance, %
Parmele, 1989 [33] EFA 417, nursing home and congregate apartment residents 6 (1) Dysphoria, (2) Worry, (3) Withdrawal/Apathy, (4) Vigor, (5) Decreased Concentration, (6)Anxiety 52.3 %
Sheikh, 1991 [45] EFA 326, community-dwelling elderly, ages 66–72 5 (1) Sad mood and pessimistic outlook, (2) lack of mental and physical energy, (3) positive mood and optimism, (4) agitation or restlessness, (5) social withdrawal 42.9 %
Salamero, 1992 [28] EFA 234, ages 60–95 9 (1) depressed mood, (2) Cognitive impairment, (3) social withdrawal and avoidance, (4)-(9) unnamed 59 %
Abraham, 1994 [35] EFA,
with 26 items
917, nursing home residents, ages 71–97 6 (1) life dissatisfaction, (2) dysphoria, (3) hopelessness/decreased self-attitude, (4) rumination/anxiety, (5) social withdrawal/decreased motivation, (6) decreased cognition 55.1 %
Ertan, 2000a [15] EFA 276, community-dwelling Turkish elderly and patients with major depression, ages ≥ 60 7;
2
(1) general depressive mood and thought content, (2) life satisfaction, (3) cognitive impairment, (4) energy level, (5) daily outlook, (6) pessimistic view of future, (7) social withdrawal or avoidant behavior;
(1) depressive affect and thought content, (2) lack of interest and energy, decrease in performing social and personal activities, and impairment in concentration, memory, and decision-making ability
57.3 %;
36.1 %
Adams, 2001 [34] EFA 272, Medicare First members of health maintenance organization (HMO), ages ≥ 65 6 (1) Dysphoria 1, (2) Withdrawal-Apathy and (Lack of) Vigor, (3) Anxiety, (4) Mental Impairment, (5) Dysphoria 2, (6) Agitation 50.4 %
Adams, 2004 [29] CFA,
with 26 items
294, independent-living communities, ages 60–98 5 (1) Dysphoric Mood, (2) Withdrawal-Apathy-Lack of Vigor, (3) Anxiety or worry, (4) Cognitive impairment, (5) Hopelessness -
Chau, 2006 [22] CFA 253, patients following stroke, ages 72.65 ± 9.36 for female, 70.52 ± 11.04 for male 1 - -
Bentz, 2008 [32] EFA 158, geriatric inpatient unit patients, ages 65–101 5 (1) hopelessness, (2) social isolation, (3) negative affect, (4) irritability, (5) worry 44.4 %
He, 2008 [24] EFA,
with 10 items
412, community-dwelling elderly in Hunan province, ages 60–92 6 unnamed 54.670 %
Pocinho, 2009 [17] EFA,
with 27 items
660, Portuguese, ages 65–74 3 (1) Well-being/ill-being, (2) sad mood, (3) mental and physical problems 43.4 %
Hall, 2010 [37] EFA 173, community-dwelling patients with cognitive impairment (clinical sample), ages ≥ 58 4 (1) Dysphoria, (2) Meaninglessness, (3) Apathy, (4) Cognitive impairment 38.3 %
Havins, 2012 [31] EFA 569, probable AD patients, ages 39–93 4 (1) Apathy, (2) Dysphoria, (3) Social withdrawal, (4) Cognitive impairment 61.54 %
Liu, 2013 [25] EFA, with 18 items 397, community-dwelling residents in Beijing, ages 60–97 8 unnamed 53.789 %
Zhang, 2016 [26] EFA, CFA 420, community-dwelling residents in Sichuan province, ages ≥ 60 6 unnamed 46.848 %
Huang, 2017 [30] EFA 240, very mild to moderate dementia patients 7 (1) Dysphoria, (2) Positive mood, (3) Apathy, (4) Hopelessness, (5) Social withdrawal, (6) Decreased concentration, (7) Cognitive impairment 59.31 %
He, 2018 [27] EFA, CFA 1553, community-dwelling residents from three provinces in China, ages 60–99 3 (1) Depression, (2) Apathy, (3) Vigor 63.36 %
  1. EFA exploratory factor analysis, CFA confirmatory factor analysis
  2. aErtan did the EFA twice, extracting different number of factors