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Table 4 Analysis of factors associated with Zarit Burden Index (12 items) in univariate logistic regression

From: Profile and needs of primary informal caregivers of older patients in Belgian geriatric day hospitals: a multicentric cross-sectional study

Characteristics Total group (n = 451; ZBI≥13 = 181) Adult children (n = 247; ZBI≥13 =102) Spouses (n = 131; ZBI≥13 =57)
n OR (95% CI) p-value n OR (95% CI) p-value n OR (95% CI) p-value
PIC characteristics
 Age 448 0.99 (0.98 - 1.01) 0.741 246 0.99 (0.96 - 1.02) 0.649 131 0.94 (0.89 - 0.99) 0.041
 Gender (F) 449 0.67 (0.44 - 1.04) 0.073 247 0.62 (0.33 - 1.16) 0.133 131 0.53 (0.26 - 1.08) 0.080
 Level of educationa 432   0.126 238   0.247 123   0.363
  Primary school   1.00    1.00    1.00  
  Secondary school   1.74 (0.76 – 3.98)    1.38 (0.32 – 5.98)    2.23 (0.73 – 6.85)  
  High school degree   1.75 (0.78 – 3.89)    1.96 (0.49 – 7.90)    1.30 (0.38 – 4.43)  
  Higher education   2.70 (1.19 – 6.12)    2.92 (0.71 – 12.02)    3.03 (0.86 – 10.72)  
  University degree   1.64 (0.64 – 4.21)    1.52 (0.34 – 6.86)    1.75 (0.30 – 10.34)  
 Professional status 444   0.247 244   0.068 130   0.823
  Retired   1.00    1.00    1.00  
  Active   1.53 (0.99 – 2.35)    2.25 (1.18 – 4.29)    0.67 (0.06 – 7.58)  
  Not active   1.12 (0.67 – 1.89)    1.35 (0.63 – 2.92)    1.20 (0.45 – 3.20)  
  Other   1.78 (0.43 – 7.35)    2.37 (0.31 – 18.07)    2.67 (0.23 – 30.33)  
 Living with the relative 442 1.44 (0.98 - 2.11) 0.064 242 1.78 (0.95 - 3.31) 0.070 129 1.33 (0.37 - 4.80) 0.661
PIC perception of care
 Tasks performed by PIC:
  Toileting 451 0.67 (0.45 - 0.98) 0.041 247 0.57 (0.33 - 0.98) 0.043 131 0.56 (0.28 - 1.14) 0.110
  Bathing 451 0.66 (0.44 - 0.97) 0.037 247 0.63 (0.37 - 1.07) 0.086 131 0.60 (0.30 - 1.20) 0.148
  Dressing 451 1.13 (0.78 - 1.66) 0.516 247 0.90 (0.54 - 1.51) 0.688 131 1.65 (0.82 - 3.32) 0.157
  Preparing meals 447 1.40 (0.95 - 2.06) 0.090 244 1.12 (0.68 - 1.88) 0.644 130 2.09 (0.92 - 4.72) 0.077
  Laundry 451 1.17 (0.78 - 1.74) 0.441 247 1.03 (0.61 - 1.74) 0.914 131 1.89 (0.83 - 4.29) 0.130
  Mandatory transports 450 1.77 (1.04 - 3.04) 0.037 246 1.48 (0.63 - 3.43) 0.366 131 1.89 (0.83 - 4.29) 0.130
  Finance management 451 1.31 (0.82 - 2.10) 0.250 247 0.69 (0.36 - 1.31) 0.254 131 3.83 (1.44 - 10.20) 0.007
  Organization of home help 451 2.06 (1.31 - 3.25) 0.002 247 2.65 (1.36 - 5.16) 0.004 131 1.26 (0.59 - 2.72) 0.552
  Supervision of health care 268 1.92 (1.15 - 3.20) 0.013 170 2.26 (1.16 - 4.43) 0.017 131 0.99 (0.34 - 2.85) 0.976
  PIC education 274 1.71 (0.88 - 3.34) 0.114 173 1.47 (0.59 - 3.67) 0.407 62 1.01 (0.27 - 3.76) 0.983
  The satisfaction to be a caregiver 423 0.61 (0.37 - 1.02) 0.061 228 0.53 (0.27 - 1.03) 0.063 126 0.57 (0.21 - 1.56) 0.275
  The wish to institutionalize the relative 415 3.49 (2.02 - 5.99) < 0.001 221 3.78 (1.91 - 7.45) < 0.001 128 2.83 (0.81 - 9.95) 0.104
  Difficulty to take leisure time or vacation 423 8.10 (5.17 – 12.71) < 0.001 235 5.79 (3.26 - 10.31) < 0.001 120 11.39 (4.54 - 28.57) < 0.001
  Need to lower professional time schedule 425 4.42 (2.53 - 7.73) < 0.001 238 4.56 (2.13 - 9.73) < 0.001 116 2.79 (1.05 - 7.38) 0.039
  Need to help financially the proxy 439 2.59 (1.44 - 4.66) 0.002 242 2.67 (1.20 - 5.93) 0.016 125 1.06 (0.39 - 2.90) 0.908
  Subjective health status estimation 439   < 0.001 239   < 0.001 128   0.005
   Poorer   1.00    1.00    1.00  
   As good   0.19 (0.11 – 0.32)    0.19 (0.10 – 0.39)    0.17 (0.05 – 0.61)  
   Better   0.14 (0.06 – 0.30)    0.15 (0.05 – 0.43)    0.24 (0.09 – 0.65)  
Care recipients’ characteristics
 Cognitive disorders 434 2.71 (1.08 – 3.86) < 0.001 240 2.05 (1.08 - 3.86) 0.027 125 1.93 (0.82 – 4.53) 0.132
 Behavioral disorders 433 5.55 (3.34 - 9.22) < 0.001 243 4.18 (2.20 - 7.92) < 0.001 121 4.87 (1.86 - 12.75) 0.001
 Mood disorders 433 5.04 (3.32 - 7.67) < 0.001 241 4.33 (2.50 - 7.51) < 0.001 121 5.45 (2.46 - 12.04) < 0.001
 Refusal of help 396 3.38 (2.02 - 5.65) < 0.001 224 3.25 (1.65 – 6.43) 0.001 110 4.04 (1.44 - 11.32) 0.008
  1. ailliterate omitted (n too small)