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Table 2 Univariate analyses of associated factors for quality of life in older adults in community care

From: Quality of life measurement in community-based aged care – understanding variation between clients and between care service providers

Variable Subgroup Quality of life mean (SD) t/Fa P
Gender Female 0.82 (0.14) 1.195 0.031*
Male 0.78 (0.17)
Age 60–69 0.82 (0.18) 1.354 0.001*
70–79 0.82 (0.14)
80–89 0.81 (0.16)
≥ 90 years 0.78 (0.15)
Relationship status Living with someone 0.81 (0.15) 1.357 0.001*
Living alone 0.81 (0.15)
Country of birth English speaking country 0.82 (0.15) 0.96 0.654
Non-English speaking country 0.81 (0.16)   
Remoteness Major city 0.81 (0.16) 1.218 0.019*
Inner regional 0.83 (0.12)
Outer regional/remote 0.79 (0.15)
Socio-economic status Lowest quintile 0.82 (0.15) 0.924 0.786
Not in lowest quintile 0.81 (0.15)
Pension status Pension 0.81 (0.15) 1.222 0.02*
No pension 0.79 (0.18)
Funding package Entry-level care 0.83 (0.14) 1.379 < 0.001*
More complex care 0.73 (0.17)
Service type cluster Mostly Day Centre 0.83 (0.14) 1.403 < 0.001*
Mostly Social Support 0.74 (0.18)
Mostly Outings 0.77 (0.17)
Services Above mean service hours 0.82 (0.15) 1.172 0.06
Below mean service hours 0.80 (0.15)
Number of ADLs needing helpa 0 0.82 (0.15) 3.915 < 0.001*
1 0.72 (0.14)
2 0.59 (0.23)
3 0.56 (0.13)
4 0.66 (0.08)
5 0.68 (0.19)
Number of IADLs needing helpb 0 0.83 (0.13) 1.736 < 0.001*
1 0.74 (0.19)
2 0.76 (0.17)
3 0.78 (0.16)
4 0.75 (0.19)
5 0.78 (0.14)
Number of unmet needs 0 0.83 7.27 < 0.001*
1 0.74
2 0.76
3 0.72
4 0.92
5 0.85
Social Participation Household - Below the mean 0.80 (0.16) 1.48 < 0.001*
- Above the mean 0.82 (0.15)
Family - Below the mean 0.77 (0.17) 1.541 < 0.001*
- Above the mean 0.84 (0.13)
Friends - Below the mean 0.76 (0.17) 1.701 < 0.001*
- Above the mean 0.86 (0.12)
Neighbours - Below the mean 0.77 (0.17) 1.457 < 0.001*
- Above the mean 0.85 (0.13)
Religious - Below the mean 0.79 (0.17) 1.014 0.438
- Above the mean 0.84 (0.12)
Community- Below the mean 0.75 (0.18) 1.753 < 0.001*
- Above the mean 0.86 (0.11)
Affairs - Below the mean 0.77 (0.17) 1.428 < 0.001*
- Above the mean 0.86 (0.11)
Social participation total score 0 0.64 (0.22) 2.086 < 0.001*
1 0.72 (0.15)
2 0.76 (0.16)
3 0.80 (0.14)
4 0.85 (0.12)
5 0.87 (0.10)
6 0.89 (0.10)
7 0.91 (0.08)
  1. aADLs consisted of bathing, dressing, eating, walking and toileting. Number refers to the numbers of needs for assistance with ADLs. bIADLs consisted of doing housework, getting backs, shopping, taking medicine, and handling money. Number refers to the numbers of assistance with IADLs
  2. *refers to significant p-value