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Table 2 Anthropometry, NAFLD risk groups, and liver function test according to nut intake categories

From: Associations between nut intake, cognitive function and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in older adults in the United States: NHANES 2011-14

  Total Nut Intake Categories P
Non-consumers
(0 g/d)
Low
(0.1 – 15.0 g/d)
Moderate
(15.1 – 30.0 g/d)
Met recommendation
(>30 g/d)
Nut intake
 n (%) 1848 (100%) 814 (44.0%) 669 (36.2%) 182 (9.8%) 183 (9.9%) -
 Median nut intake (g/d) a 7.6 (2.4, 21.4) 0 w 3.4 (0.9, 7.5) x 19.9 (16.7, 23.6) y 44.9 (35.7, 67.3) z <0.001 i
Anthropometry
 Weight (kg) 80.2 (19.3) 80.9 (19.1) 79.2 (19.5) 77.9 (19.1) 82.3 (19.2) 0.056 i
 BMI (kg/m2) 29.3 (6.2) 29.7 (6.3) w 29.0 (6.3) w 28.5 (6.1) w 28.9 (5.9) w 0.026 i
 Waist circumference (cm) 103 (14.6) 104 (14.3) w 102 (14.7) w, x 100 (15.1) x 103 (15.1) w, x 0.015 i
NAFLD groups
 FLI<30, n (%) 726 (39.3) 289 (35.5) 278 (41.6) 88 (48.4) 71 (38.8) 0.023 j
 30<FLI<60, n (%) 483 (26.1) 220 (27.0) 167 (25.0) 41 (22.5) 55 (30.1)
 FLI>60, n (%) 639 (34.6) 305 (37.5) 224 (33.5) 53 (29.1) 57 (31.1)
Liver function test
 ALT (U/L) b 19.0 (16.0, 25.0) 19.0 (16.0, 24.0) w 19.0 (16.0, 24.0) w 19.0 (15.8, 25.0) w 22.0 (18.0, 27.0) x 0.001 i
 AST (U/L) c 23.0 (20.0, 27.0) 23.0 (20.0, 27.0) w 23.0 (20.0, 27.0) w 22.5 (20.0, 26.0) w 24.0 (21.0, 28.0) w 0.023 i
 GGT (U/L) d 19.0 (14.0, 27.0) 19.0 (14.0, 27.0) w 18.0 (14.0, 26.0) w, x 16.0 (13.8, 25.0) x 19.0 (15.0, 27.0) w, x 0.043 i
 Total protein (g/dL) e 7.03 (0.48) 7.09 (0.49) w 7.00 (0.47) x 6.98 (0.47) x 6.97 (0.49) x <0.001 i
 Albumin (g/dL) f 4.20 (0.29) 4.18 (0.30) w 4.19 (0.29) w 4.23 (0.29) w, x 4.27 (0.27) x <0.001 i
 Globulin (g/dL) g 2.83 (0.47) 2.91 (0.46) w 2.80 (0.47) x 2.75 (0.44) x, y 2.70 (0.47) y <0.001 i
 Total bilirubin (mg/dL) h 0.676 (0.269) 0.672 (0.268) 0.668 (0.259) 0.701 (0.300) 0.696 (0.277) 0.341 i
  1. All values are mean with standard deviations (SD) or number (proportions, %) unless stated. Post-hoc comparisons were performed if overall statistical significance was achieved; values with different superscript letters were significantly different
  2. aMedian with first and third quartile nut intake of the total population excludes individuals who were non-consumers
  3. bALT – alanine aminotransferase, normal range 7-55 U/L, median with first and third quartile
  4. cAST – aspartate aminotransferase, normal range 8-48 U/L, median with first and third quartile
  5. dGGT – gamma glutamyltransferase, normal range 8-61 U/L, median with first and third quartile
  6. eTotal protein, normal range 6.3-7.9 g/dL
  7. fAlbumin, normal range 3.5-5.0 g/dL
  8. gGlobulin, normal range 2.0-3.5 g/dL
  9. hTotal bilirubin, normal value <1.2 mg/dL
  10. iAnalysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests
  11. jCrosstab analysis, chi-square test