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Table 2 Logistic regression estimates for violence among older adults by background characteristics in India

From: Socio-economic inequality in the prevalence of violence against older adults – findings from India

Background characteristics Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Age (years)
 60–69 Ref.
 70–79 0.97(0.78,1.19)
 80+ 1.49*(1.14,1.93)
Sex
 Men Ref.
 Women 0.96(0.78,1.19)
Educational status
 None Ref.
 Below 5 years 1.08(0.89,1.32)
 6 to 10 years 0.79*(0.63,1)
 11+ years 0.60*(0.39,0.9)
Marital status
 Not in union Ref.
 Currently in union 0.79*(0.65,0.95)
Living arrangement
 Alone Ref.
 With spouse 0.69*(0.48,0.98)
 With children 0.53*(0.4,0.72)
 Others 0.44*(0.3,0.66)
Working status
 No Ref.
 Yes 1.26*(1.02,1.56)
Contribute money for household expenditure
 No income Ref.
 Yes 0.92(0.74,1.16)
 No 1.25*(1.05,1.86)
Wealth quintile
 Poorest Ref.
 Poorer 0.63*(0.5,0.79)
 Middle 0.43*(0.32,0.58)
 Richer 0.39*(0.29,0.53)
 Richest 0.35*(0.24,0.51)
Religion
 Hindu Ref.
 Muslim 1.08(0.75,1.55)
 Sikh 1.51*(1.04,2.18)
 Others 1.09(0.72,1.66)
Caste
 Scheduled Caste Ref.
 Scheduled Tribe 0.91(0.63,1.32)
 Other Backward Class 0.96(0.73,1.25)
 Others 1.37*(1.07,1.75)
Place of residence
 Rural Ref.
 Urban 0.94(0.78,1.14)
State
 Himachal Pradesh Ref.
 Punjab 0.82(0.56,1.2)
  West Bengal 0.50*(0.34,0.72)
 Orissa 0.56*(0.39,0.82)
 Maharashtra 3.53*(2.62,4.75)
 Kerala 0.28*(0.18,0.44)
 Tamil Nadu 0.13*(0.08,0.22)
  1. *p < 0.05; CI Confidence Interval, Ref Reference category