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Table 4 Association between caregiver type and all-cause mortality among married and widowed Chinese older adults by sex

From: Association between primary caregiver type and mortality among Chinese older adults with disability: a prospective cohort study

Sex of care receiver Caregiver type Multivariable adjusted with interaction term in sex and type
Count HR (95% CI) P-value
Female Married (N = 89)
Spouse 37 Ref.  
Son/daughter-in-law 28 0.90 (0.48, 1.76) .763
Daughter/son-in-law 19 0.95 (0.42, 2.04) .907
Widowed (N = 3076)
Son/daughter-in-law 1880 Ref.  
Daughter/son-in-law 684 0.88 (0.79, 0.98) .019
Grandchildren 330 0.90 (0.78, 1.04) .152
Domestic helper 182 0.99 (0.82, 1.23) .929
Male Married (N = 271)
Spouse 145 Ref.  
Son/daughter-in-law 78 1.64 (1.18, 2.30) .004
Daughter/son-in-law 28 1.68 (0.97, 2.92) .065
Widowed (N = 842)
Son/daughter-in-law 550 Ref.  
Daughter/son-in-law 168 0.88 (0.70, 1.10) .271
Grandchildren 67 0.67 (0.48, 0.93) .018
Domestic helper 57 0.79 (0.54, 1.17) .234
  1. Abbreviations: HR Hazard ratio, CI Confidence interval, ADL Activity of daily living
  2. Notes: Other caregiver types (including other relatives, neighbours, social services, and nobody) were excluded due to small sample sizes
  3. Adjusted variables include age, number of ADL disability, residence (urban vs. rural), co-residence (living with children vs. not living with children), education years, financial independence (yes vs. no), self-rated health (very good/good/so-so/bad/very bad), number of chronic conditions, cognitive impaired (MMSE< 18), and caregiving quality