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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics (N = 16,084)

From: Trajectories of end-of-life medical and long-term care expenditures for older adults in Japan: retrospective longitudinal study using a large-scale linked database of medical and long-term care claims

Patients Age at death, years, mean (SD) 85.1 (7.5)
65–74 years, n (%) 1539 (9.6%)
75–84 years 5857 (36.4%)
85–94 years 6892 (42.9%)
≥ 95 years 1796 (11.2%)
Male 7804 (48.5%)
Female 8280 (51.5%)
Medical care services Hospitalization, total 14,687 (91.3%)
Subacute/chronic care hospital 11,378 (70.7%)
Acute care hospital 8995 (55.9%)
Home medical care by a physician 3518 (21.9%)
Ventilation 2852 (17.7%)
Death at home/long-term care facility 2113 (13.1%)
Tube feeding 814 (5.1%)
Hospice 639 (4.0%)
Dialysis 557 (3.5%)
Long-term care services Home visiting care 5239 (32.6%)
Day care 4894 (30.4%)
Institutional care, total 3779 (23.5%)
Special nursing home for the elderly 1669 (10.4%)
Health services facility for the aged 1517 (9.4%)
Community-based specific facility 394 (2.4%)
Sanatorium-type medical care facilities 385 (%)
Group home for dementia 289 (1.8%)
Diseases Chronic respiratory failure 12,551 (78.0%)
Hypertension 12,534 (77.9%)
Musculoskeletal disorder 11,778 (73.2%)
Cerebrovascular disease 11,659 (72.5%)
Chronic heart failure 10,640 (66.2%)
Spinal disease 8396 (52.2%)
Psychiatric disorder 8041 (50.0%)
Malignancy 7080 (44.0%)
Metabolic bone disease 6453 (40.1%)
Chronic liver disease 6386 (39.7%)
Dementia 6110 (38.0%)
Chronic kidney disease 5129 (31.9%)
Other fracture 3546 (22.0%)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia 2231 (13.9%)
Ischemic heart disease 2115 (13.1%)
Fracture of femur 1964 (12.2%)
Uncomplicated diabetes mellitus 1926 (12.0%)
Complicated diabetes mellitus 1686 (10.5%)
Neurodegenerative disease 1515 (9.4%)
Fracture of extremities (excluding femur) 531 (3.3%)
Hematological malignancy 3546 (22.0%)
Number of diseases
Average (minimum–maximum)
7.8 (0–18)
  1. Except where stated, the data are presented as number (percentage). SD standard deviation