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Table 5 Factors for self-confidence to live alone (N = 936)

From: Factors Related to Self-Confidence to Live Alone in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
B SE ß p B SE ß p B SE ß p
Constant 4.097 .495   <.001 6.778 .507   <.001 6.502 .616   <.001
General characteristics
 Educational level (ref. < middle school) 0.252 .213 .039 .237 0.075 .197 .012 .380 0.082 .196 .013 .677
 Personal income (KRW/month) 6.122E-7 < .001 .081 .016 3.056E-7 < .001 .040 .188 2.398E-7 < .001 .032 .294
 Participation in economic activity (ref. <  3–4 times/week) 0.656 .225 .095 .004 0.483 .207 .070 .020 0.379 .204 .055 .064
 Wall cracks at home (ref. yes) 0.023 .263 −.003 .929 −0.081 .239 −.011 .736 0.005 .236 .001 .983
 Mould exposure at home (ref. yes) 1.074 .231 −.163 < .001 0.746 .212 .113 < .001 0.686 .209 .104 .001
Health-related characteristics
 IADL (ref. Independent)     −0.981 .235 −.127 < .001 −0.872 .233 −.113 < .001
 Number of comorbidities    −0.048 .039 −.038 .215 −0.043 .038 −.034 .264
 Depression (ref. normal)     −2.056 .186 −.340 < .001 −1.579 .199 −.261 < .001
 Falls (times/year)     −0.128 .063 −.060 .041 −0.100 .062 −.047 .107
 ED visit (times/year)     −0.388 .135 −.085 .004 −0.359 .133 −.079 .007
Social characteristics
 Participation in social activity (ref. <  3–4 times/week)      0.192 .181 .032 .290
 Interactions with family members (ref. <  1–2 times/month)     0.453 .203 .068 .026
 Interactions with neighbours (ref. < 1−2 times/month)     −0.282 .277 −.034 .308
 Public service utilisation (ref. ≥ 1)        0.415 .178 .069 .020
 Social support (ref. Good or Fair)        −0.659 .206 −.108 .001
 Loneliness (ref. ≤ Moderate)        −0.590 .244 −.088 .016
R2 (Δ R2) .051 (.051) .222 (.171) .257 (.035)
Adjusted R2 .046 .213 .244
Δ F (p) 9.937 (< .001) 26.347 (< .001) 19.869 (< .001)
  1. SE Standard error, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living, ED Emergency department, KRW Korean Won