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Table 2 Questionnaire responses of subjects

From: Establishing content validity for a composite activities-specific risk of falls scale:linkage between fear of falling and physical activity

Activity Items PA frequency (times/month) P^ Balance confidence (0–100)
Elderly Stroke SCI Elderly Stroke SCI P^
D4 Mobility
 Sitting-to-standing 390 ± 232 732 ± 899 207 ± 188 .113 99 ± 3 86 ± 21 50 ± 45 .002
 Lying-to-sitting 78 ± 55 303 ± 450 213 ± 142 .202 100 ± 0 90 ± 18 99 ± 3 .061
 Bending down-up 285 ± 432 378 ± 925 60 ± 105 .478 97 ± 7 54 ± 40 28 ± 44 .001
 Squatting down-up 159 ± 267 36 ± 66 0 ± 0 .082 100 ± 0 67 ± 40 28 ± 44 .000
 Kneeling down-up 9 ± 28 6 ± 18 0 ± 0 .590 100 ± 0 67 ± 40 28 ± 44 .000
 Sitting activities@ 1494 ± 730 1926 ± 857 936 ± 500 .016 100 ± 0 100 ± 2 88 ± 20 .045
 Standing activities@ 1620 ± 704 1152 ± 636 141 ± 145 .000 98 ± 4 100 ± 2 48 ± 45 .000
 Squatting activities@ 296 ± 438 42 ± 75 0 ± 0 .033 98 ± 6 70 ± 42 20 ± 38 .000
 Transferring while sitting 69 ± 61 204 ± 464 159 ± 162 .569 99 ± 3 80 ± 37 56 ± 49 .039
 Lifting and carrying objects 231 ± 184 33 ± 60 6 ± 18 .000 99 ± 3 56 ± 45 23 ± 35 .000
 Walking long distances* 18 ± 11 2 ± 4 0 ± 0 .000 97 ± 7 69 ± 30 69 ± 30 .000
 Walking short distances@ 177 ± 227 98 ± 135 10 ± 26 .070 100 ± 0 85 ± 34 32 ± 44 .000
 Walking on slope 71 ± 101 13 ± 18 0 ± 0 .029 100 ± 0 83 ± 30 30 ± 44 .000
 Walking on wet ground 34 ± 55 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 .033 93 ± 11 79 ± 29 24 ± 32 .000
 Walking on uneven ground 15 ± 35 11 ± 15 0 ± 0 .303 93 ± 11 78 ± 29 24 ± 32 .000
 Walking on mobile ground 2 ± 3 2 ± 3 0 ± 0 .170 87 ± 14 72 ± 28 21 ± 28 .000
 Walking around obstacles 22 ± 33 3 ± 7 0 ± 0 .040 95 ± 11 81 ± 30 28 ± 39 .000
 Climbing up and down 120 ± 70 30 ± 37 0 ± 0 .000 100 ± 0 77 ± 31 28 ± 39 .000
 Running 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 100 ± 0 59 ± 25 24 ± 33 .000
 Jumping 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 76 ± 14 56 ± 23 23 ± 31 .000
 Sitting in a wheelchair@ 0 ± 0 90 ± 142 93 ± 137 .235 100 ± 0 100 ± 0 99 ± 3 .341
 Riding bike 6 ± 8 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 .007 78 ± 42 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 .000
 Driving motorized vehicles 3 ± 9 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 .381 60 ± 52 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 .000
 Using transportation 8 ± 17 1 ± 4 1 ± 1 .221 100 ± 0 78 ± 37 65 ± 46 .085
D5 Self-Care
 Washing oneself 12 ± 9 12 ± 11 7 ± 5 .269 99 ± 3 89 ± 28 70 ± 28 .031
 Toileting 189 ± 42 144 ± 61 75 ± 104 .007 100 ± 0 89 ± 31 71 ± 20 .019
 Putting on-off coats 84 ± 41 72 ± 28 102 ± 63 .371 100 ± 0 90 ± 32 95 ± 11 .519
 Putting on-off trousers 72 ± 25 69 ± 20 72 ± 25 .948 100 ± 0 90 ± 32 94 ± 16 .551
 Putting on-off footwear 72 ± 25 72 ± 28 123 ± 78 .047 100 ± 0 90 ± 32 90 ± 18 .476
D6 Domestic life
 Preparing meals 43 ± 36 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 .000 99 ± 3 56 ± 45 22 ± 36 .000
 Tidying up dishes 53 ± 31 7 ± 18 0 ± 0 .000 100 ± 0 53 ± 44 22 ± 36 .000
 Cleaning cooking area 54 ± 29 7 ± 18 0 ± 0 .000 99 ± 3 71 ± 39 25 ± 40 .000
 Washing clothes 11 ± 12 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 .002 100 ± 0 85 ± 8 72 ± 22 .000
 Drying clothes 23 ± 12 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 .000 98 ± 5 100 ± 2 48 ± 45 .000
 Cleaning living area 16 ± 12 3 ± 9 0 ± 0 .001 99 ± 3 71 ± 39 25 ± 40 .000
 Taking care of animals 12 ± 28 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 .199 98 ± 6 54 ± 40 28 ± 44 .000
 Assisting others’ self-care 3 ± 9 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 .381 92 ± 6 46 ± 33 14 ± 30 .000
 Assisting others’ movement 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 92 ± 6 26 ± 25 14 ± 30 .000
D9 Community, Social and Civic life
 Non-contact sports 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 97 ± 7 65 ± 30 23 ± 35 .000
 Contact sports 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 87 ± 12 61 ± 27 18 ± 27 .000
  1. PA physical activity, SCI spinal cord injury; Both variables data were shown with mean ± standard deviation.
  2. ^:the p value were the group difference among 3 groups using ANOVA test.
  3. @: The frequency of the posture-maintaining or short-distance walking activities was numbered with the total time divided by 10 min which was used as the minimum PA duration of one walking bout in the International PA Questionnaire [16].
  4. *: For walking long distance, every 1 km was regarded as once according to ICF definition [17]