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Table 1 Sample characteristics of the respondents by wave

From: Social engagement and physical frailty in later life: does marital status matter?

  Baseline (2011) Wave 2 (2013) Wave 3 (2015)
N = 6575 N = 6273 N = 5836
Time-invariant characteristics
 Gender
  Men 3268 (49.70) 3123 (49.78) 2874 (49.25)
  Women 3307 (50.30) 3150 (50.22) 2962 (50.75)
 Educational attainment
  Illiterate 2420 (36.81) 2320 (36.98) 2145 (36.75)
  Primary school 2944 (44.78) 2816 (44.89) 2639 (45.22)
  Middle school or above 1211 (18.42) 1137 (18.13) 1052 (18.03)
 Time-varying characteristics
  Age, mean (SD) 67.97 (6.67) 69.98 (6.66) 71.54 (6.40)
 Marital Status
  Unmarried 1630 (24.79) 1671 (26.64) 1671 (28.63)
  Married 4945 (75.21) 4599 (73.31) 4164 (71.35)
  Missing 0 (0.00) 3 (0.05) 1 (0.02)
  Financial situation, mean (SD) 7366.98 (13,482.04) 7600.20 (17,186.05) 6165.00 (28,279.95)
 Currently working
  Yes 3495 (53.16) 3134 (49.96) 2763 (47.34)
  No 3053 (46.43) 3060 (48.78) 3023 (51.80)
  Missing 27 (0.41) 79 (1.26) 50 (0.86)
 Smoking status
  Yes 2743 (41.72) 2893 (46.12) 2773 (47.52)
  No 3831 (58.27) 3334 (53.15) 3046 (52.19)
  Missing 1 (0.02) 46 (0.74) 50 (0.86)
 Alcohol consumption
  Yes 2001 (30.43) 1871 (29.83) 1763 (30.21)
  No 4571 (69.52) 4344 (69.25) 4052 (69.43)
  Missing 3 (0.05) 58 (0.92) 21 (0.36)
 Multi-morbidity
  No chronic condition 1596 (24.27) 1291 (20.58) 728 (12.47)
  One chronic condition 1948 (29.63) 1732 (27.61) 1297 (22.22)
  Multi-morbidity 3031 (46.10) 3250 (51.81) 3811 (65.30)
 Depression
  Yes 2495 (37.95) 1791 (28.55) 1947 (33.36)
  No 4080 (62.05) 4482 (71.45) 3889 (66.64)
 Self-perceived health status
  Very good, good 1151 (17.51) 1384 (22.06) 1170 (20.05)
  Fair, poor, or very poor 5424 (82.49) 4889 (77.94) 4666 (79.95)
 Physical activity
  Yes 2307 (35.09) 1733 (27.63) 2292 (39.27)
  No 331 (5.03) 292 (4.65) 391 (6.70)
  Missing 3937 (59.88) 4248 (67.72) 3153 (54.03)
Social engagement
 Interaction with friends
  Never 4505 (68.52) 4125 (65.76) 4103 (70.31)
  Not regularly 530 (8.06) 590 (9.41) 528 (9.05)
  Almost every week 437 (6.65) 397 (6.33) 345 (5.91)
  Almost daily 1100 (16.73) 1161 (18.51) 860 (14.74)
 Missing 3 (0.05) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)
 Hobby groups
  Never 5571 (84.73) 5262 (83.88) 4924 (84.37)
  Not regularly 298 (4.53) 308 (4.91) 305 (5.23)
  Almost every week 338 (5.14) 306 (4.88) 258 (4.42)
  Almost daily 368 (5.60) 397 (6.33) 349 (5.98)
 Sports groups
  Never 6154 (93.60) 5789 (92.28) 5482 (93.93)
  Not regularly 57 (0.87) 57 (0.91) 52 (0.89)
  Almost every week 66 (1.00) 61 (0.97) 39 (0.67)
  Almost daily 298 (4.53) 366 (5.83) 263 (4.51)
 Volunteer activities
  Never 6254 (95.12) 5661 (90.24) 5174 (88.66)
  Not regularly 221 (3.36) 434 (6.92) 485 (8.31)
  Almost every week 52 (0.79) 116 (1.85) 107 (1.83)
  Almost daily 48 (0.73) 62 (0.99) 70 (1.20)
  Frailty index, mean (SD) 18.65 (11.82) 20.06 (12.66) 23.05 (13.93)