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Table 1 General characteristics of participants overall and by frailty states. Values are absolute frequencies (percentages) unless stated otherwise

From: Convergent and discriminative validity of the Frail-VIG index with the EQ-5D-3L in people cared for in primary health care

    Frailty states according to Frail-VIG index
   Total (n = 412) Non-frailty
< 0.20 (n = 12)
Mild frailty
0.20–035 (n = 116)
Moderate frailty
0.36–050 (n = 191)
Severe frailty
> 0.50 (n = 93)
Variable Description      
 Age, mean (SD)   88.0 (8.1) 86.7 (8.0) 88.8 (7.4) 88.1 (8.2) 86.8 (8.8)
 Female   282 (68,4) 9 (75.0) 81 (69.8) 126 (66.0) 66 (71.0)
 Health-related quality of life EQ-5D-3L value, mean (SD) 0.30 (0.23) 0.48 (0.19) 0.42 (0.20) 0.29 (0.22) 0.13 (0.15)
Domains and variables of Frail-VIG frailty index
Functional domain
  IADLs: Money management Needs help managing financial matters (bank, shops, or restaurants) 350 (85.0) 5 (41.7) 79 (68.1) 173 (90.6) 93 (100.0)
  IADLs: Telephone use Needs help using the telephone 132 (32.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (3.4) 58 (30.4) 70 (75.3)
  IADLs: Medication management Needs assistance in preparing or administering medications 304 (73.8) 0 (0.0) 51 (44.0) 161 (84.3) 92 (98.9)
  ADLs: Barthel index (BI) No dependency (BI > = 95) 6 (1.5) 1 (8.3) 3 (2.6) 2 (1.0) 0 (0.0)
Mild-moderate dependency (BI from 90 to 65) 143 (34.7) 11 (91.7) 79 (68.1) 51 (26.7) 2 (2.2)
Moderate-severe dependency (BI from 60 to 25) 175 (42.5) 0 (0.0) 33 (28.4) 111 (58.1) 31 (33.3)
Absolute dependency (BI <=20) 88 (21.4) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.9) 27 (14.1) 60 (64.5)
Nutritional domain
  Malnutrition Weight loss > = 5% in the las 6 months 70 (17.0) 0 (0.0) 10 (8.6) 34 (17.8) 26 (28.0)
Cognitive domain
  Degree of cognitive impairment No cognitive impairment 198 (48.1) 12 (100.0) 90 (77.6) 86 (45.0) 10 (10.8)
Mild-moderate cognitive impairment (equivalent to GDS < =5) 171 (41.5) 0 (0.0) 26 (22.4) 93 (48.7) 52 (55.9)
Severe-very severe cognitive impairment (equivalent to GDS > =6) 43 (10.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 12 (6.3) 31 (33.3)
Emotional domain
  Depressive syndrome Need for antidepressant medication 158 (38.3) 0 (0.0) 25 (21.6) 82 (42.9) 51 (54.8)
  Insomnia/anxiety Frequent need for benzodiazepines or other psychiatric drugs with a sedative effect for insomnia/anxiety 226 (54.9) 4 (33.3) 55 (47.4) 104 (54.5) 63 (67.7)
Social domain
  Social vulnerability Do health care professionals perceive the presence of social vulnerability? 212 (51.5) 4 (33.3) 69 (59.5) 93 (48.7) 46 (49.5)
Geriatric syndromes
  Delirium Presence of delirium and/or behaviour disorder requiring antipsychotic drugs in the last6 months 119 (28.9) 0 (0.0) 8 (6.9) 48 (25.1) 63 (67.7)
  Falls In the last 6 months, ≥2 falls or hospitalization due to a fall. 112 (27.2) 0 (0.0) 21 (18.1) 56 (29.3) 35 (37.6)
  Ulcers Presence of ulcer (pressure or vascular, any grade) 85 (20.6) 0 (0.0) 9 (7.8) 39 (20.4) 37 (39.8)
  Polypharmacy Taking ≥5 drugs 365 (88.6) 8 (66.7) 91 (78.4) 178 (93.2) 88 (94.6)
  Dysphagia Difficulty swallowing when eating or drinking? Presence of aspiration respiratory infections during the last 6 months? 75 (18.2) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.7) 24 (12.6) 49 (52.7)
Severe symptoms
  Pain Need for ≥2 conventional analgesics and/or strong opioids for pain control 87 (21.1) 3 (25.0) 15 (12.9) 49 (25.7) 20 (21.5)
  Dyspnoea Basal dyspnoea impeding the ability to leave the house and/or opioids are frequently needed 19 (4.6) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.6) 10 (5.2) 6 (6.5)
Diseases
  Cancer Active cancer 36 (8.7) 0 (0.0) 4 (3.4) 24 (12.6) 12 (12.9)
  Respiratory Presence of any type of chronic respiratory disease (COPD, restrictive lung disease...) 116 (28.2) 1 (8.3) 23 (19.8) 61 (31.9) 31 (33.3)
  Cardiac Presence of any type of chronic heart disease (heart failure, ischemic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia 248 (60.2) 2 (16.7) 57 (49.1) 124 (64.9) 65 (69.9)
  Neurological Presence of any type of neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson, ALS...) or a history of stroke (ischemic or haemorrhagic) 151 (36.7) 0 (0.0) 24 (20.7) 75 (39.3) 52 (55.9)
  Digestive Presence of any type of chronic digestive disease (chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ... 39 (9.5) 1 (8.3) 8 (6.9) 22 (11.5) 8 (8.6)
  Renal Presence of chronic renal failure (GFR < 60) 204 (49.5) 4 (33.3) 57 (49.1) 102 (53.4) 41 (44.1)
  1. ADLs Activities of Daily Living, ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, GDS Global deterioration scale, GFR Glomerular Filtration Rate, IAVDs Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, SD Standard deviation