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Table 2 Results of the force-entry logistic regression model with all covariates

From: Caregiving burnout of community-dwelling people with dementia in Hong Kong and New Zealand: a cross-sectional study

  HK NZ
AOR (95CI) AOR (95CI)
Demographic Information of care-recipient
 Female 1.00 (0.87, 1.15) 0.86 (0.78, 0.96)**
 Age
  65–74 Ref Ref
  75–84 1.08 (0.89, 1.31) 0.99 (0.86, 1.14)
  85+ 1.21 (0.99, 1.48) 0.97 (0.84, 1.13)
 Marital Status
  Never married/Widowed/Separated/Divorced/Other 0.89 (0.73, 1.09) 0.95 (0.76, 1.19)
  Married/Civil Union/Defacto Ref Ref
 Living arrangement
  Alone Ref*** Ref
  With spouse/partner only 0.88 (0.61, 1.27) 1.40 (1.08, 1.83)*
  With spouse/partner and others 0.74 (0.52, 1.06) 1.27 (0.97, 1.66)
  With child 0.61 (0.47, 0.79)*** 1.02 (0.77, 1.35)
 Perceived to be better-off living elsewhere 2.76 (2.40, 3.17)*** 5.68 (5.09, 6.34)***
Health and functional status of care-recipient
 Stay in hospital within 7 days 0.95 (0.78, 1.15) 0.88 (0.75, 1.03)
 Hearing
  Adequate Ref*** Ref*
  Minimal difficulty 0.82 (0.71, 0.93)** 0.92 (0.82, 1.04)
  Moderate to severe difficulty 1.16 (0.98, 1.37) 1.10 (0.97, 1.25)
 Vision
  Adequate Ref*** Ref
  Minimal difficulty 0.99 (0.87, 1.14) 0.99 (0.87, 1.11)
  Moderate to severe difficulty 0.67 (0.53, 0.84)*** 1.01 (0.85, 1.20)
 3+ IADL items with difficulties 2.00 (0.90, 4.43) 1.15 (0.82, 1.62)
 ADL Hierarchy Scale
  Independent Ref Ref***
  Supervision 0.98 (0.84, 1.15) 1.43 (1.26, 1.63)***
  Limited to Total dependence 1.03 (0.88, 1.21) 1.31 (1.14, 1.49)***
 Fall in last 90 days 1.01 (0.89, 1.15) 1.53 (1.37, 1.70)***
 Behavioral problems in past 3 days 1.61 (1.41, 1.83)*** 1.75 (1.55, 1.98)***
 Mood problem in past 3 days 1.53 (1.30, 1.79)*** 1.09 (0.99, 1.21)
 Comorbidity
  Dementia only Ref*** Ref
  Stroke & Dementia 0.67 (0.51, 0.89)** 0.88 (0.74, 1.05)
  CVD & Dementia 0.93 (0.79, 1.09) 1.02 (0.91, 1.15)
  CVD, Stroke & Dementia 0.75 (0.63, 0.89)** 0.94 (0.78, 1.13)
Caregiver characteristics
 Primary caregiver relationship with care-recipient
  Child or child-in-law 1.55 (1.29, 1.86)*** 1.19 (0.97, 1.47)
  Spouse/Partner/significant other 3.18 (2.52, 4.00)*** 1.49 (1.12, 2.00)**
  Parent/guardian/Sibling/Other relative or whanau/friends Ref*** Ref*
 Primary caregiver lives with care-recipient 0.93 (0.78, 1.11) 1.69 (1.32, 2.15)***
 Primary caregiver provides IADL care 1.22 (0.84, 1.77) 0.82 (0.71, 0.96)*
 Primary caregiver provides ADL care 2.92 (2.39, 3.56)*** 1.20 (1.06, 1.36)**
 Primary caregiver provides more than 21 h of care in 7 days 1.57 (1.35, 1.81)*** 1.35 (1.20, 1.52)***
Formal care services utilization of care-recipient
 Home care service (home making or meal services) 1.84 (1.27, 2.65)** 1.06 (0.86, 1.30)
 Visiting Nurse 1.39 (1.10, 1.74)** 1.22 (1.09, 1.38)***
 Allied-health Service 0.49 (0.34, 0.72)*** 0.98 (0.84, 1.14)
 Hospital Service (inpatient care or emergency unit visit) 1.17 (1.02, 1.33)* 1.00 (0.88, 1.14)
  1. ADL activities of daily living, IADL instrumental activities of daily living
  2. P-values is denoted as *: < 0.05; **:< 0.01; ***:< 0.001