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Table 4 Logistic Regression Model for Happiness Comparing Three Living Arrangements of Older Adults

From: Association of living arrangements with happiness attributes among older adults

Variables Living alone Living with their spouse Living with their family
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Gender 1.39 1.08–1.78 1.06 0.92–1.22 1.39 1.16–1.66
Age 1.01 1.00–1.03 1.02 1.01–1.03 1.02 1.01–1.03
Educational level
 None 0.64 0.41–1.00 0.62 0.45–0.87 0.46 0.33–0.65
 Elementary 0.85 0.57–1.26 0.63 0.50–0.80 0.57 0.43–0.77
 Middle 0.63 0.42–0.95 0.55 0.44–0.70 0.61 0.45–0.82
 High 0.72 0.48–1.09 0.73 0.58–0.92 0.61 0.45–0.82
 College or higher referent   referent   referent  
Marital status
 Married 0.90 0.47–1.75 1.64 0.08–31.79 0.48 0.19–1.22
 Divorced 1.05 0.59–1.87 0.91 0.04–21.87 0.29 0.11–0.78
 Widowed 1.18 0.68–2.07 1.00 0.04–24.11 0.50 0.19–1.28
 Never married referent   referent   referent  
 Employment status 0.74 0.59–0.92 0.90 0.78–1.04 0.95 0.80–1.13
Eligibility for basic livelihood rights
 Yes 0.68 0.53–0.88 1.00 0.74–1.34 0.83 0.61–1.13
 In the past 0.82 0.40–1.68 1.23 0.51–2.93 0.88 0.50–1.56
 No referent   referent   referent  
Monthly income (10,000 won)a
  < 50 0.48 0.32–0.72 0.37 0.28–0.47 0.53 0.36–0.78
 50–99 0.77 0.52–1.14 0.56 0.46–0.67 0.63 0.51–0.79
 100–199 0.81 0.53–1.24 0.64 0.54–0.76 0.69 0.58–0.82
  ≥ 200 referent   referent   referent  
 Depressive symptoms 0.87 0.85–0.90 0.87 0.85–0.89 0.87 0.85–0.89
 Present health status 1.21 1.15–1.28 1.26 1.21–1.31 1.23 1.18–1.29
 Trust in neighbors 1.45 1.16–1.82 1.32 1.13–1.54 1.19 1.01–1.42
 Help from neighbors 0.88 0.71–1.09 1.10 0.95–1.27 1.11 0.95–1.31
 Neighborhood safety level 1.24 0.96–1.60 1.04 0.87–1.26 0.94 0.77–1.16
 Natural environment 1.05 0.83–1.34 1.02 0.86–1.20 1.32 1.09–1.59
 Life environment 1.01 0.76–1.36 1.14 0.93–1.41 1.23 0.97–1.56
 Condition of public transportation 1.01 0.77–1.32 1.24 1.03–1.50 1.22 0.97–1.53
 Condition of medical facilities 1.16 0.88–1.53 1.04 0.85–1.27 0.92 0.73–1.16
Contact with family
 Less than once a month 0.92 0.70–1.21 0.99 0.81–1.22 0.80 0.65–0.99
 Once a month 0.70 0.51–0.95 0.84 0.68–1.02 0.97 0.77–1.22
 2–3 times a month 0.87 0.64–1.18 1.07 0.87–1.31 0.92 0.73–1.15
 Once a week 0.79 0.60–1.05 1.17 0.97–1.42 1.06 0.83–1.35
 2–3 times a week 0.75 0.57–0.99 1.03 0.84–1.25 0.97 0.77–1.24
  ≥ 4 times a week referent   referent   referent  
Contact with neighbors
 Less than once a month 0.90 0.70–1.15 0.83 0.69–0.99 1.04 0.86–1.27
 Once a month 0.93 0.62–1.38 0.81 0.63–1.05 1.35 1.00–1.83
 2–3 times a month 1.38 0.89–2.13 1.13 0.86–1.48 1.62 1.18–2.22
 Once a week 0.62 0.42–0.93 0.88 0.68–1.12 0.85 0.65–1.12
 2–3 times a week 1.01 0.76–1.34 1.12 0.91–1.37 1.07 0.85–1.35
  ≥ 4 times a week referent   referent   referent  
Contact with friends
 Less than once a month 0.81 0.63–1.04 0.84 0.69–1.02 0.90 0.73–1.12
 Once a month 0.93 0.68–1.26 0.69 0.56–0.84 0.91 0.72–1.15
 2–3 times a month 0.90 0.64–1.27 0.80 0.64–1.01 1.10 0.85–1.41
 Once a week 1.18 0.83–1.69 0.81 0.63–1.04 1.32 0.99–1.75
 2–3 times a week 1.44 1.05–1.96 0.92 0.73–1.15 1.19 0.92–1.54
  ≥ 4 times a week referent   referent   referent  
 Religious activities 1.49 1.24–1.79 1.22 1.07–1.40 1.31 1.13–1.51
 Belonging to communities 1.25 1.03–1.52 1.20 1.05–1.39 1.08 0.92–1.27
 Leisure activities 1.38 1.05–1.80 1.47 1.24–1.75 1.37 1.12–1.68
 Charity activities 1.08 0.70–1.67 1.22 0.91–1.62 1.20 0.86–1.68
 Constant 0.04   0.02   0.03  
  1. a 1 USD = approximately 1200 Korean won. OR = odds ratio. CI = confidence interval