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Table 3 Comparison of Socio-Physical Environment Satisfaction, Social Support Networks, Social Activity Participation, and Happiness a

From: Association of living arrangements with happiness attributes among older adults

Characteristics Categories Living alone
(n = 3059)
Living with their spouse
(n = 6644)
Living with their family
(n = 4984)
χ2 p
n % n % n %   
Satisfaction with socio-physical environment Trust in neighbors No 911 6.6 1754 12.6 1380 9.9 13.99 .001
Yes 1971 14.2 4550 32.8 3309 23.9   
Help from neighbors No 1563 11.0 2886 20.3 2447 17.2 69.97 < .001
Yes 1392 9.8 3561 25.1 2360 16.6   
Neighborhood safety level No 520 3.6 987 6.9 805 5.6 9.49 .009
Yes 2467 17.1 5557 38.6 4063 28.2   
Natural environment No 629 4.3 1391 9.5 1048 7.2 0.26 .876
Yes 2400 16.5 5217 35.8 3884 26.7   
Life environment No 377 2.6 729 5.0 561 3.8 3.88 .144
Yes 2663 18.3 5877 40.3 4381 30.0   
Condition of public transportation No 497 3.4 970 6.7 681 4.7 9.84 .007
Yes 2536 17.4 5635 38.7 4245 29.1   
Condition of medical facilities No 475 3.3 864 5.9 661 4.5 12.05 .002
Yes 2558 17.6 5726 39.4 4262 29.3   
Social support networks Contact with family Less than once a month 612 4.1 833 5.7 1068 7.3 229.51 < .001
Once a month 327 2.2 848 5.8 701 4.8   
2–3 times a month 397 2.7 961 6.5 714 4.9   
Once a week 464 3.1 1112 7.6 633 4.3   
2–3 times a week 467 3.2 1026 7.0 646 4.4   
≥ 4 times a week 788 5.4 1864 12.7 1220 8.3   
Contact with neighbors Less than once a month 895 6.1 1960 13.4 1586 10.9 67.38 < .001
Once a month 165 1.1 446 3.1 333 2.3   
2–3 times a month 157 1.1 436 3.0 325 2.2   
Once a week 176 1.2 526 3.6 404 2.8   
2–3 times a week 404 2.8 909 6.2 637 4.4   
≥ 4 times a week 1243 8.5 2327 15.9 1667 11.4   
Contact with friends Less than once a month 967 6.6 1691 11.5 1413 9.6 109.40 < .001
Once a month 358 2.5 1057 7.2 724 4.9   
2–3 times a month 264 1.8 795 5.4 604 4.1   
Once a week 252 1.7 652 4.5 472 3.2   
2–3 times a week 395 2.7 918 6.3 579 4.0   
≥ 4 times a week 818 5.6 1524 10.4 1174 8.0   
Participation in social activities Religious activities No 1757 12.0 4206 28.6 2962 20.2 35.85 < .001
Yes 1302 8.9 2438 16.6 2021 13.7   
Belonging to communities No 1719 11.7 2557 17.4 2330 15.9 275.06 < .001
Yes 1340 9.1 4087 27.8 2653 18.1   
Leisure activities No 2563 17.4 5005 34.1 4006 27.3 101.15 < .001
Yes 496 3.4 1639 11.2 976 6.6   
Charity activities No 2904 19.8 6163 42.0 4679 31.8 17.75 < .001
Yes 155 1.0 481 3.3 303 2.1   
  1. a No responses were excluded