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Table 1 Sample characteristics (N = 14,687)a

From: Association of living arrangements with happiness attributes among older adults

Characteristics Living alone
(n = 3059)
Living with their spouse
(n = 6644)
Living with their family
(n = 4984)
χ2 or F p
n % n % n %
Gender
 Male 692 4.7 3786 25.8 1845 12.6 1120.77 < .001
 Female 2367 16.1 2858 19.4 3139 21.4   
Age group (years)
 65–69 763 5.2 2365 16.1 1737 11.8 344.96 < .001
 70–74 769 5.2 2026 13.8 1287 8.8   
 75–79 796 5.4 1443 9.8 970 6.6   
 > 80 731 5.0 810 5.5 990 6.8   
 M ± SD 74.86 ± 6.45 72.47 ± 5.50 73.56 ± 6.75 163.04 < .001
 Range 65–100 65–97 65–105   
Educational level
 None 552 3.8 383 2.6 681 4.6 661.31 < .001
 Elementary school 1257 8.6 2039 13.9 1797 12.3   
 Middle school 503 3.4 1471 10.0 977 6.7   
 High school 490 3.3 1684 11.5 1013 6.9   
 College or higher 246 1.7 1052 7.2 508 3.5   
Marital status
 Married 173 1.2 6644 45.3 2736 18.6 8632.93 < .001
 Divorced 434 3.0 0 0.0 203 1.4   
 Widowed 2360 16.1 0 0.0 2003 13.6   
 Never married 83 0.6 0 0.0 35 0.2   
Employment status
 Unemployed 2381 16.2 4702 32.0 3752 25.6 61.74 < .001
 Employed 678 4.6 1936 13.2 1231 8.4   
Eligibility for basic livelihood rights
 Yes 502 3.4 263 1.8 297 2.0 545.17 < .001
 In the past 45 0.3 29 0.2 69 0.5   
 No 2509 17.1 6352 43.3 4618 31.4   
Monthly income (10,000 won)b
  < 50 1011 6.9 521 3.6 169 1.2 4585.51 < .001
 50–99 1328 9.1 2020 13.8 591 4.1   
 100–199 481 3.3 2144 14.7 941 6.5   
  ≥ 200 221 1.5 1929 13.2 3230 22.1   
  1. a Missing data: educational level for older adults living alone (n = 11), living with their spouse (n = 15), living with family (n = 8); marital status for older adults living alone (n = 9), living with family (n = 7); employment status for older adults living with their spouse (n = 6), living with family (n = 1); basic livelihood rights for older adults living alone (n = 3); monthly income for older adults. b 1USD = approximately 1200 Korean won