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Table 1 Thresholds/ cut points in elements relevant to expected performance (Bolded measures indicate the way that the Fried frailty phenotype attributes were calculated)

From: Pre-frailty factors in community-dwelling 40–75 year olds: opportunities for successful ageing

Frailty measuresCalculationThreshold for poor performance (referenced for published norms)
Walking speedSix Minute Walk Test [38]>80th% distribution of differences between predicted and actual 6MWT [38]
Grip strengthDominant hand grip strength measured in sitting [39, 40]< 10th% age-gender norms [40]
Self-reports of unintentional weight lossYes/ NoYes (1)
Self-reported physical activity [36]Accumulate 150 to 300 min (2 ½ to 5 h) of moderate intensity physical activity, or 75 to 150 min (1 ¼ to 2 ½ hours) of vigorous intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both moderate and vigorous activities, each week.1 = Less than median recommended time per week spent walking, and no moderate or vigorous activity [36]
K10_tiredness score (Q. 1) [37]Single response item scored 1–5, with 1 = none; 5 = all of the time4 or 5 [37]
Modified Functional Movement Screen (FMS) elements (0–3, with 0 being pain precluding activity, 1 being unable to attempt test, 2 being partial attempt; 3 successfullycompleted test) [31, 41]Sum of scores for deep squat, hurdle step, in line floor lunge, opposite side arm / leg extension in four-point kneeling≤12
Capacity to walk a flight of stairs [38]Self-report Yes / NoNo (0) [38]
GPCog [42]Summed scores≤8 [42]
BMI [43]Underweight≤18 [43]
BMI [43]Overweight / obese≥26 [43]
Lean muscle mass [44]Calculated for males as 0.407* weight (kgs) + 0.267* height (cms)- 19.2; and for females as 0.252* weight (kgs) + 0.473* height (cms)- 48.3 [44]≤24.5 [44]
Chronic health conditionsTotal number of current chronic conditions≥1
Health concernsAny1
PainAny pain * length of time suffered (years)≥2
Total nutrition score [35]Sum of (Yes scores to daily consumption of 5+ serves vegetables; 2+ serves fruit; mostly eat wholegrain or alternative grains; one serve day meat or alternatives; 2 serves dairy, limited intake of sugary drinks, processed foods and takeaways)≤6
Water intake [35]Not answering ‘plenty’0 [35]
Modified K10 [37]Total score minus exhaustion component (Question 1)≥12
Health concernsAny1
Continence concerns [33] (score 1 for each reported problem * degree of bother) [bother scored 1 = not at all to 5 = a lot]Total score of urge incontinence, stress incontinence, frequency, problems emptying bladder, urinary leakage, discomfort, bulging pelvic floor, faecal incontinence≥3
Unplanned health service use in past 12 monthsSum of number of unplanned hospitalisations, Emergency Department contacts> 1
Living statusAlone1
Total sleep quality score (PSQI) [34]Summed scores≥8 [34]
Near miss falls in last 6 months and/or falls in the last 6 monthsyes, no1 = yes (any)
Balance for 5 s (eyes open, standing on R or L leg) [45]5 s is compliant for each leg (summed for Right + Left leg)1 is < 10 s [45]
Balance for 5 s (eyes closed, standing on R or L leg) [45]5 s is compliant for each leg (summed for Right + Left leg)1 is < 10 s [45]