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Table 2 Participants’ socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and hearing loss prevalence in England in 8 Waves of English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)

From: Regional patterns and trends of hearing loss in England: evidence from the English longitudinal study of ageing (ELSA) and implications for health policy

GORa Hearing lossb Lowest educationc Manual Occupationd Lowest Incomee Lowest wealthf Most deprivedg Alcohol misuseh Hearing loss Lowest education Manual Occupation Lowest Income Lowest wealth Most deprived Alcohol misuse
  WAVE 1 (2002–2003) WAVE 2 (2004–2005)
North East 325 (42.54) 362
(46.89)
404
(53.02)
169
(23.06)
169
(23.87)
261
(33.76)
74
(9.92)
254
(43.34)
249
(42.35)
320
(54.89)
125
(22.52)
148
(26.31)
191
(32.21)
96
(29.91)
North West 603
(38.78)
699
(44.38)
744
(48.00)
296
(20.05)
296
(20.60)
441
(27.96)
179
(11.94)
432
(36.86)
486
(40.77)
550
(46.61)
233
(20.77)
231
(19.52)
298
(24.98)
233
(34.88)
Yorkshire
and The Humber
549
(43.06)
596
(46.09)
662
(52.21)
280
(23.12)
280
(23.31)
323
(24.96)
131
(10.62)
401
(40.46)
431
(43.01)
501
(50.86)
226
(24.04)
183
(22.13)
236
(23.51)
175
(30.92)
East Midlands 449
(39.18)
493
(42.25)
552
(47.83)
205
(19.21)
205
(19.18)
158
(13.53)
122
(10.99)
335
(35.52)
396
(41.42)
447
(47.25)
161
(18.34)
175
(19.70)
115
(12.02)
182
(33.46)
West Midlands 452
(36.78)
633
(50.28)
604
(48.99)
261
(22.19)
261
(22.48)
201
(15.97)
130
(10.75)
375
(38.82)
456
(47.06)
458
(48.06)
181
(19.93)
189
(18.83)
145
(14.87)
168
(31.88)
East of England 507
(37.50)
540
(39.82)
539
(40.50)
204
(16.16)
204
(16.20)
57
(4.20)
101
(7.77)
400
(37.00)
398
(36.58)
427
(39.61)
143
(14.19)
137
(17.36)
48
(4.38)
224
(34.46)
London 385
(34.16)
488
(42.69)
445
(40.83)
255
(24.36)
255
(23.94)
237
(20.72)
109
(10.01)
292
(35.39)
328
(39.38)
326
(40.70)
162
(21.15)
189
(16.97)
163
(19.54)
133
(33.84)
South East 681
(36.13)
651
(34.05)
703
(37.45)
261
(14.61)
261
(14.76)
66
(3.45)
215
(11.67)
513
(35.19)
449
(30.61)
513
(35.33)
224
(16.40)
198
(19.18)
46
(3.12)
370
(40.31)
South West 510
(38.37)
483
(35.99)
556
(42.54)
227
(18.17)
227
(17.57)
64
(4.77)
100
(7.82)
420
(39.77)
352
(33.08)
426
(40.69)
186
(18.49)
154
(16.20)
40
(3.75)
213
(34.80)
  WAVE 3 (2006–2007) WAVE 4 (2008–2009)
North East 284
(47.81)
218
(36.33)
323
(54.56)
117
(21.35)
146
(26.64)
204
(33.72)
84
(26.33)
296
(47.21)
225
(34.72)
334
(53.27)
114
(19.29)
143
(24.20)
196
(30.02)
117
(35.03)
North West 458
(40.39)
341
(29.45)
505
(43.95)
209
(20.29)
236
(22.91)
299
(25.75)
198
(31.94)
511
(40.36)
379
(29.04)
520
(41.63)
217
(18.63)
243
(20.86)
288
(21.85)
262
(39.70)
Yorkshire
and The Humber
452
(42.68)
372
(34.35)
518
(48.82)
225
(23.20)
186
(19.18)
238
(21.90)
183
(30.86)
491
(44.60)
351
(30.76)
519
(47.18)
224
(21.66)
207
(20.02)
223
(19.44)
207
(34.56)
East Midlands 368
(37.98)
321
(32.59)
434
(44.60)
193
(22.29)
175
(20.21)
116
(11.72)
163
(31.05)
434
(40.49)
357
(32.19)
475
(44.35)
218
(22.13)
172
(17.46)
109
(9.74)
199
(32.52)
West Midlands 392
(39.68)
363
(36.23)
451
(46.02)
168
(18.79)
182
(20.36)
141
(14.03)
170
(31.89)
461
(41.31)
405
(35.31)
502
(45.43)
204
(19.84)
199
(19.36)
188
(16.33)
219
(36.44)
East of England 461
(40.33)
329
(28.41)
447
(39.01)
173
(17.06)
144
(14.20)
49
(4.20)
200
(30.86)
530
(41.15)
374
(28.55)
464
(36.65)
197
(17.00)
166
(14.32)
62
(4.69)
241
(32.66)
London 348
(40.65)
267
(30.76)
319
(37.71)
157
(20.55)
175
(22.91)
152
(17.41)
152
(36.54)
348
(38.71)
266
(28.94)
315
(36.04)
171
(20.90)
201
24.57)
184
(19.78)
159
(35.49)
South East 534
(35.77)
348
(22.77)
512
(33.84)
209
(15.61)
202
(15.09)
50
(3.26)
364
(40.00)
669
(38.45)
399
(22.37)
595
(34.33)
227
(14.39)
199
(12.62)
81
(4.51)
396
(37.71)
South West 453
(43.06)
267
(25.24)
401(38.26) 163
(17.23)
129
(13.64)
33
(3.09)
217
(36.35)
501
(43.00)
283
(23.86)
406
(35.09)
180
(16.73)
148
(13.75)
44
(3.66)
257
(37.63)
  WAVE 5 (2010–2011) WAVE 6 (2012–2013)
North East 295
(51.85)
196
(33.73)
287
(49.91)
99
(18.50)
146
(27.29)
155
(26.27)
116
(38.16)
249
(50.00)
172
(33.46)
239
(46.59)
90
(19.11)
95
(20.17)
142
(27.26)
104
(37.96)
North West 481
(42.68)
317
(27.26)
455
(39.16)
187
(17.76)
229
(21.75)
236
(19.92)
249
(36.89)
471
(46.96)
288
(27.32)
397
(37.59)
171
(18.08)
162
(17.12)
215
(20.11)
212
(38.69)
Yorkshire
and The Humber
457
(45.11)
330
(31.88)
491
(48.18)
195
(20.81)
193
(20.60)
197
(18.87)
195
(34.64)
453
(48.81)
288
(30.16)
440
(46.17)
204
(23.53)
149
(17.19)
175
(18.08)
165
(34.74)
East Midlands 399
(39.66)
331
(31.95)
457
(44.59)
226
(24.25)
172
(18.45)
99
(9.37)
163
(30.47)
391
(41.68)
296
(30.58)
410
(42.05)
199
(22.85)
128
(14.70)
101
(10.24)
163
(33.33
West Midlands 413
(40.73)
357
(33.81)
450
(42.98)
214
(22.62)
186
(19.66)
162
(15.14)
216
(38.43)
399
(42.95)
322
(33.23)
404
(41.87)
188
(21.58)
149
(17.11)
150
(15.34)
166
(33.07)
East of England 503
(42.20)
357
(29.24)
456
(37.72)
186
(16.80)
147
(13.28)
61
(4.92)
236
(33.86)
514
(46.77)
303
(26.81)
401
(35.55)
169
(16.41)
125
(12.14)
57
(4.98)
212
(33.76)
London 333
(40.71)
230
(27.19)
290
(35.32)
153
(20.35)
199
(26.46)
156
(18.22)
162
(40.30)
302
(41.26)
200
(26.42)
253
(33.91)
145
(21.17)
148
(21.61)
136
(17.66)
126
(34.81)
South East 615
(39.55)
336
(21.07)
543
(34.24)
220
(15.51)
185
(13.05)
76
(4.69)
367
(38.23)
639
(44.53)
297
(20.14)
473
(31.89)
188
(14.37)
127
(9.71)
70
(4.67)
337
(37.40)
South West 469
(42.95)
249
(22.11)
380
(34.08)
188
(18.29)
162
(15.76)
40
(3.49)
220
(33.79)
489
(48.71)
225
(21.66)
377
(36.04)
166
(17.44)
113
(11.87)
40
(3.78)
200
(34.90)
  WAVE 7 (2014–2015) WAVE 8 (2016–2017)
North East 212
(50.12)
141
(31.76)
204
(46.05)
77
(19.40)
75
(18.89)
575
(39.12)
78
(32.64)
202
(53.72)
114
(29.16)
196
(50.26)
91
(24.73)
42
(11.41)
97
(24.37)
69
(33.82)
North West 378
(43.15)
233
(25.46)
324
(35.41)
157
(19.12)
114
(13.89)
860
(32.72)
190
(39.09)
370
(48.49)
190
(24.11)
289
(36.72)
138
(19.49)
141
(19.92)
151
(18.90)
172
(41.15)
Yorkshire
and The Humber
360
(46.51)
234
(29.32)
361
(45.35)
156
(21.64)
120
(16.64)
715
(30.59)
126
(30.88)
339
(48.36)
209
(29.11)
354
(49.65)
151
(23.20)
95
(14.59)
140
(19.10)
108
(30.34)
East Midlands 351
(42.39)
242
(28.40)
350
(40.89)
168
(21.73)
119
(15.39)
440
(19.29)
154
(34.00)
351
(47.56)
205
(27.22)
306
(40.53)
155
(22.33)
126
(18.16)
78
(10.14)
118
(31.13)
West Midlands 359
(44.65)
262
(30.82)
350
(41.22)
173
(22.97)
102
(13.55)
670
(27.66)
142
(33.81)
340
(48.02)
209
(28.21)
309
(41.59)
147
(22.24)
106
(16.04)
112
(14.85)
130
(33.94)
East of England 417
(42.55)
257
(25.42)
343
(33.93)
134
(14.66)
84
(9.19)
250
(10.92)
180
(33.27)
423
(47.37)
216
(23.89)
321
(35.51)
127
(15.19)
201
(24.04)
52
(5.61)
174
(34.05)
London 258
(40.12)
170
(25.41)
215
(32.98)
112
(19.15)
118
(20.17)
575
(27.43)
103
(34.56)
249
(46.03)
134
(24.06)
183
(33.33)
98
(19.41)
113
(22.38)
79
(13.88)
86
(33.20)
South East 537
(42.96)
242
(18.63)
411
(31.62)
177
(15.43)
112
(9.76)
275
(10.00)
259
(34.35)
508
(46.35)
198
(17.66)
356
(31.62)
181
(17.73)
299
(29.29)
46
(4.02)
221
(34.05)
South West 413
(46.67)
178
(19.22)
326
(35.09)
138
(16.51)
84
(10.05)
160
(6.88)
165
(33.60)
399
(52.02)
141
(18.08)
254
(32.52)
139
(19.39)
201
(28.03)
43
(5.38)
146
(34.11)
  1. a GOR: Government Office Regions
  2. b Self-reported hearing loss: the sum of those that rated their hearing as fair or poor on a five-point Likert scale (excellent, very good, good, fair or poor), or responded positively in the question whether they find it difficult to follow a conversation if there is background noise (such as TV, radio or children playing)
  3. C No qualifications
  4. d Manual occupations
  5. e Income categories in quantiles
  6. f Wealth categories in quantiles
  7. g IMD: Index of Multiple Deprivation (in quintiles)
  8. h Alcohol intake above the low-risk level guidelines (> 14 units/week)