# Table 4 Primary and secondary outcomes of studies

study

Intervention /control condition

Primary Outcome-Frailty

Secondary outcomes

Significance

[29]

CGA unit (Nâ€‰=â€‰206)

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At baseline:

- Physical fitness, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: HS: 18.8â€‰Â±â€‰7.2; 6-MWT: 146â€‰Â±â€‰103.4; TUG: 30â€‰Â±â€‰23.2

- Number of Hospital days: 11.2

At follow up vs baseline:

- Physical fitness, mean (95% CI) a: HS: +â€‰1.64 (0.93â€“2.36); 6-MWT: +â€‰21.4 (5.8â€“37); TUG: +â€‰6.75 (4.03â€“9.45)

- Decline in physical fitness, n(%), [OR (95% CI)]: HS: 23 (17.2), [3.2 (1.7â€“6.1)] a; 6-MWT: 9 (10.8), [7.0 (2.8â€“17.7)] a; TUG: 18 (17.1), [2.8 (1.3â€“5.9)] a

Number of hospital days per patient, mean: 16.2

Between group changes:

- change in physical fitness a

HS pâ€‰<â€‰0.001

6-MWT pâ€‰<â€‰0.001

TUG pâ€‰=â€‰0.042

- Number of hospital days: pâ€‰=â€‰0.002

Conventional acute care (Nâ€‰=â€‰202)

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At baseline, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD:

- Physical fitness: HS: 18â€‰Â±â€‰7.9; 6-MWT: 160â€‰Â±â€‰100; TUG: 37.4â€‰Â±â€‰28.6

- Number of Hospital days: 9.2

At follow up vs baseline:

- Physical fitness, mean (95% CI) a: HS: âˆ’â€‰0.9 (âˆ’â€‰1.7 to âˆ’â€‰0.1); 6-MWT:: --60.7 (âˆ’â€‰80.6 to âˆ’â€‰40.9); TUG: +â€‰2.19 (âˆ’â€‰1.15 to 5.45)

- Decline in physical fitness, n(%): HS: 46 (42.6); 6-MWT: 26 (50); TUG: 26 (37.1)

Number of Hospital days, mean: 16.9

[32]

CGA unit (Nâ€‰=â€‰72)

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Follow up, n (%):

- Getting help from doctors with medical problems: Great help, fairy great help: 62 (86.1); Little and very little help: 10 (13.9)

- Getting nursing from ward staff that you needed: Yes always, yes often: 66 (98.5); No not often, no seldom: 1 (1.5)

- Satisfied with received information: Very satisfied, fairy satisfied: 64 (90.1); Fairy unsatisfied: 7 (9.1)

Satisfied with planning before discharge: Very satisfied, fairy satisfied: 64 (89); Fairy unsatisfied: 8 (11)

Between group changes:

- Getting nursing that you needed pâ€‰=â€‰0.003

- Satisfied with received information pâ€‰=â€‰0.016

Satisfied with planning before discharge pâ€‰=â€‰0.023

Conventional acute care (Nâ€‰=â€‰76)

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Follow up, n (%):

- Getting help from doctors with medical problems: Great help, fairy great help: 50 (75.8); Little and very little help: 16 (24.2)

- Getting nursing from ward staff that you needed: Yes always, yes often: 55 (83.3); No not often, no seldom: 11 (16.7)

- Satisfied with received information: Very satisfied, fairy satisfied: 50 (74.6); Fairy unsatisfied: 17 (25.4)

Satisfies with planning before discharge: Very satisfied, fairy satisfied: 48 (74); Fairy unsatisfied: 17 (26)

[31]

CGA unit (Nâ€‰=â€‰206)

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At baseline

- HUI-3, mean: Vision: 0.886; Hearing: 0.815; Speech: 0.999; Ambulation: 0.540; Dexterity: 0.871; Emotion: 0.823; Cognition: 0.896; Pain: 0.621

- EQ-VAS score, mean: 51.1

- Mortality, n (%): 8 (4)

At follow-up (1â€‰month)

- Rehospitalization, n (%): 40 (19)

At follow-up (3â€‰months)

- HUI-3, mean: Vision: 0.873; Hearing: 0.818; Speech: 0.995; Ambulation: 0.584; Dexterity: 0.856; Emotion: 0.896; Cognition: 0.933; Pain: 0.766

- Decline in HUI, OR (CI 95%) a: vision: 0.33 (0.14â€“0.79); ambulation: 0.19 (0.1â€“0.37); dexterity: 0.38 (0.19â€“0.75); emotion: 0.43 (0.22â€“0.84); cognition 0.076 (0.033â€“0.18); pain: 0.28 (0.15â€“0.50); hearing: 0.50 (0.22â€“1.1); speech: 0.45 (0.11â€“1.9)

- EQ-VAS score, mean: 56.8

- Mortality, n (%), [HR (CI 95%)] a: 27 (13), [0.55 (0.32â€“0.96)]

Rehospitalization, n (%): 73 (37)

Between group changes in follow-up:

- HUI-3: Ambulation pÂ =â€‰0.001; cognition pâ€‰<â€‰0.001; pain pâ€‰<â€‰0.001

- Decline in HRQoL: vision pâ€‰=â€‰0.013; ambulation pâ€‰<â€‰0.001, dexterity pâ€‰=â€‰0.007, emotions pâ€‰=â€‰0.014, cognition pâ€‰<â€‰0.001, and pain pâ€‰<â€‰0.001

- Rehospitalizations: PÂ =â€‰0.048

EQ-VAS score: pâ€‰=â€‰0.003

Conventional acute care (Nâ€‰=â€‰202)

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At baseline

- HUI-3, mean: Vision: 0.884; Hearing: 0.881; Speech: 0.975; Ambulation: 0.569; Dexterity: 0.882; Emotion: 0.865; Cognition: 0.877; Pain: 0.631

- EQ-VAS score, mean: 48.9

- Mortality, n (%): 10 (5)

At follow-up (1â€‰month)

- Rehospitalization, n (%): 56 (28)

At follow-up (3â€‰months)

- HUI-3, mean: Vision: 0.862; Hearing: 0.817; Speech: 0.985; Ambulation: 0.458; Dexterity: 0.804; Emotion: 0.896; Cognition: 0.834; Pain: 0.594

- EQ-VAS score, mean: 51.2

Rehospitalization, n (%): 88 (46)

[22]

CGA unit (Nâ€‰=â€‰206)

At follow up vs baseline:

Increase in degree of frailty, assessed with FRESH screening tool, n (%), [OR (95% CI)]: 24 (13.6),

[0.229 (0.131â€“0.400)]

At follow up vs baseline

- Average change of ADL Staircase, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 0.2â€‰Â±â€‰1.1 to up

- Decline in ADLs staircase, n (%), [OR (95% CI)]: 24 (14.1), [0.093 (0.052â€“0.16)] a

- Decline in ADL stratum, n(%): 11 (6.3)

Increase in use of municipal services, n(%), [OR (95% CI)]: 36 (20), [0.682 (0.395â€“1.178)] a

Between group changes:

- Increase in degree of frailty pâ€‰<â€‰0.0001

- Decline in ADLs pâ€‰<â€‰0.0001

Decline in ADL stratum: pâ€‰=â€‰0.0001

Conventional acute care (Nâ€‰=â€‰202)

At follow up vs baseline:

Increase in degree of frailty, assessed with FRESH screening tool, n (%): 66 (41)

At follow up vs baseline:

- Average change of ADL Staircase, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD:1.1â€‰Â±â€‰1.6 to down

- Decline in ADL staircase, n(%): 98 (63.6)

- Decline in ADL stratum, n(%): 33 (20.2)

Increase in use of municipal services, n(%): 44 (26.2)

[21]

APEP group (nâ€‰=â€‰17)

Baseline:

- Frailty index, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 0.46â€‰Â±â€‰0.20

Follow up, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD, [mean (95% CI)]:

Frailty index: 0.40â€‰Â±â€‰0.19, [0.01 (âˆ’0.02 to 0.05)] a

Baseline:

- Mobility, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: DEMMI: 49.4â€‰Â±â€‰16.0; HABAM: 19.1â€‰Â±â€‰4.7; TUG: 28.6â€‰Â±â€‰13.2; Gait Speed: 0.53â€‰Â±â€‰0.17

- 6-MWT, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 154.5â€‰Â±â€‰59.6

- FES-1, Median (IQR): 31 (22â€“57)

- FAC, Median (IQR): 4 (3â€“4)

Mobility, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD, [mean (95% CI)]: DEMMI: 57.2â€‰Â±â€‰17, [4.1 (0.4 to 7.8)] a; HABAM: 20.3â€‰Â±â€‰4.9, [0 (âˆ’â€‰0.9 to 0.9)] a; TUG: 22.8â€‰Â±â€‰12.2, [2.5 (0.4 to 4.6)]a; Gait Speed: 0.65â€‰Â±â€‰0.20, [0.07 (0.01 to 0.13)]a

6-MWT, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD, [mean (95% CI)]: 194.9â€‰Â±â€‰85.8, [34.7 (13.7 to 55.7)] a

FES-1, median (IQR), [mean (95% CI)]: 30 (22â€“52), [24 (âˆ’5.5 to 10.3)]a

FAC, median (IQR), [mean (95% CI)]: 4 (4â€“4), [0 (âˆ’â€‰0.4 to 0.4)] a

Length of stay, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 18.4â€‰Â±â€‰2.3

Adherence rate, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 78â€‰Â±â€‰26%

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Usual care (nâ€‰=â€‰18)

Baseline:

- Frailty index, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 0.46â€‰Â±â€‰0.14

Frailty index, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 0.41â€‰Â±â€‰0.15

Baseline:

- Mobility, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: DEMMI: 52.9â€‰Â±â€‰11.1; HABAM: 19.9â€‰Â±â€‰4.4; TUG: 24.9â€‰Â±â€‰11.1; Gait Speed: 0.60â€‰Â±â€‰0.19

- 6-MWT, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 167.7â€‰Â±â€‰79.4

- FES-1, Median (IQR): 31 (26â€“45)

- FAC, Median (IQR): 4 (3â€“4)

Follow up, mean (SD):

- Mobility, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: DEMMI: 55.7â€‰Â±â€‰11.3; HABAM: 20.9â€‰Â±â€‰4.0; TUG: 22.4â€‰Â±â€‰9.5; Gait Speed: 0.64â€‰Â±â€‰0.28

- 6-MWT, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 170.8â€‰Â±â€‰79.9

- FES-1, Median (IQR): 31 (25â€“46)

- FAC, Median (IQR): 4 (3â€“4)

Length of stay, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 17.8â€‰Â±â€‰4.2

[11]

mHELP group (nâ€‰=â€‰197)

At follow up, n (%), [RR (95% CI)]

- Incident frailty, assessed with Friedâ€™s criteria, during stays in hospital: 20 (12), [0.55 (0.33â€“0.93)]

Persistent frailty: 6 (50), [0.54 (0.30â€“0.97)]

Changes on body weight, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: âˆ’â€‰2.1â€‰Â±â€‰5.5

Between group changes:

- Incident frailty during stays pâ€‰=â€‰0.02

- Persistent frailty pâ€‰=â€‰0.03

Changes on body weight: pâ€‰=â€‰0.002

Usual care (nâ€‰=â€‰180)

At follow up, n (%):

- Incident frailty, assessed with Friedâ€™s criteria, during stays in hospital: 30 (21.7)

Persistent frailty: 13 (92.9)

Changes on body weight, meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: âˆ’â€‰4.0â€‰Â±â€‰3.4

[30]

mHELP group, nâ€‰=â€‰107

At discharge

- Transitions between Friedâ€™s frailty states of pre-frail: advanced to frail: 18%; pre-frail: 64%; non frail: 18%

- Rate of frailty using Friedâ€™s criteria, n(%), [OR (95% CI)] b: 10.52 (19.2), [0.1 (0.02â€“0.39)]

- Rate of frailty according to Friedâ€™s criteria, n(%), [OR (95% CI)] b: 9.52 (17.3), [0.73 (0.21â€“2.56)]

Improved to not frail according to Friedâ€™s criteria: 21%

Length of hospital stay (days), meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD: 20.5â€‰Â±â€‰18.2

Between group changes:

- Difference in Transitions between frailty states, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001

Frailty rate at discharge; pâ€‰=â€‰0.001

Usual care, nâ€‰=â€‰82

At discharge

- Transitions between Friedâ€™s frailty states of pre-frail: advanced to frail: 68%; remaining in a pre-frail: 32%

- Rate of frailty using Friedâ€™s criteria, n(%): 34.52 (65.4) b