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Table 1 Patient characteristics on admission

From: Delirium is associated with high mortality in older adult patients with acute decompensated heart failure

  Overall
n = 132
Delirium (−)
n = 96
Delirium (+)
n = 36
P-value
Age (years) 83 (75–87) 82 (75–86) 85 (83–91) < 0.001
Men 68 (51.5) 49 (51.0) 19 (52.8) 0.859
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.3 (19.7–24.7) 22.3 (19.9–25.0) 22.0 (18.8–24.1) 0.284
Hypertension 101 (76.5) 71 (74.0) 30 (83.3) 0.258
Diabetes mellitus 49 (37.4) 36 (37.5) 13 (37.1) 0.970
Dyslipidemia 68 (51.5) 51 (53.1) 17 (47.2) 0.546
Smoking 50 (37.9) 38 (39.6) 12 (33.3) 0.510
Previous cerebral infarction 19 (14.4) 9 (9.4) 10 (27.8) 0.007
Dementia 36 (27.3) 16 (16.7) 20 (55.6) < 0.001
Clinical frailty scale score 4 (3–5) 3 (3–4) 5 (4–6) < 0.001
Underlying heart disease
 Ischemic heart disease 24 (18.2) 17 (17.7) 7 (19.4) 0.818
 Severe valvular disease 37 (28.0) 29 (30.2) 8 (22.2) 0.363
 Dilated cardiomyopathy 18 (13.6) 13 (13.5) 5 (13.9) 0.959
Hemodynamic data
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 138 (120–154) 138 (119–157) 139 (126–153) 0.986
 HR (beats per minute) 78 (60–94) 74 (60–90) 90 (74–100) 0.036
Clinical profile of heart failure
 Warm–dry 24 (18.2) 20 (20.8) 4 (11.1) 0.197
 Warm–wet 97 (73.5) 68 (70.8) 29 (80.6) 0.260
 Cold–dry 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.8) 0.273
 Cold–wet 10 (7.6) 8 (8.3) 2 (5.6) 0.727
Medication
 Beta–blocker 50 (37.9) 38 (39.6) 12 (33.3) 0.510
 ACEI or ARB 71 (53.8) 55 (57.3) 16 (44.4) 0.187
 Diuretics 78 (59.1) 57 (59.4) 21 (58.3) 0.914
Laboratory data
 PaO2 (mmHg) 78.8 (59.6–96.8) 78.7 (61.2–96.8) 79.1 (55.0–95.5) 0.918
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 34.5 (30.5–39.8) 34.1 (30.9–39.3) 35.2 (29.3–40.1) 0.949
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 48.3 (27.8–64.3) 47.4 (28.6–66.9) 49.9 (25.3–57.0) 0.409
 BNP level (pg/mL) 601 (331–1264) 513 (274–1105) 896 (560–1788) 0.002
Echocardiography
 LVEF (%) 48 (31–60) 50 (33–61) 41 (30–58) 0.395
  1. Continuous variables are given as medians and interquartile ranges, whereas categorical variables are summarized as exact numbers and percentages. Medication was present if the drug was prescribed regularly at the outpatient visit, regardless of cessation after admission
  2. ACEI Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin II receptor blocker, BNP Brain natriuretic peptide, BP Blood pressure, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, HR Heart rate, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, PaO2 Arterial oxygen partial pressure, PaCO2 Arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure