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Table 1 Comparison of indices between young-old and old-old decedents

From: Healthcare utilisation in the last year of life in internal medicine, young-old versus old-old

  Total
(n = 189)
Young-Old
(< 80 years old) (n = 57)
Old-Old
(≥80 years) (n = 132)
P value
Demographics
Age* (mean, SD) 84.3 (8.6) 73.8 (4.0) 88.9 (5.5) < 0.001
Sex* (count, %)     0.004
  Female 107 (56.6) 24 (42.1) 83 (62.9)  
  Male 82 (43.4) 33 (57.9) 49 (37.1)  
Residence (count, %)     0.07
  Home 142 (75.1) 38 (66.7) 104 (78.8)  
  Nursing home 47 (24.9) 19 (33.3) 28 (21.2)  
Primary Caregiver* (count, %)     0.001
  Self 17 (9.0) 10 (17.5) 7 (5.3)  
  Spouse 7 (3.7) 3 (5.3) 4 (3.0)  
  Child 22 (11.6) 3 (5.3) 19 (14.4)  
  FDW 89 (47.1) 19 (33.3) 70 (53.0)  
  Others 54 (28.6) 22 (38.6) 32 (24.3)  
Home services (count, %) 37 (19.6) 13 (22.8) 24 (18.2) 0.50
Ambulation status (count, %)     0.80
  Walking aid 37 (19.9) 13 (21.0) 24 (18.5)  
  Wheelchair bound 30 (16.1) 4 (6.5) 26 (20.0)  
  Bedbound 119 (64.0) 39 (69.6) 80 (61.5)  
Clinical Indices
FRAIL-NH (mean, SD) 7.3 (3.4) 7.0 (3.9) 7.5 (3.2) 0.30
CCI* (mean, SD) 7.5 (2.5) 6.9 (2.8) 7.7 (2.4) 0.007
Dementia (count, %) 79 (41.8) 21 (36.8) 58 (43.9) 0.30
Polypharmacy (count, %) 124 (65.6) 41 (71.9) 83 (62.9) 0.01
Commonly used medications (count, %)
  Statin 32 (17.0) 8 (14.0) 24 (18.3) 0.5
  Aspirin 36 (19.2) 10 (17.5) 26 (20.0) 0.7
  PPI 63 (33.3) 21 (36.8) 42 (31.8) 0.5
  1. FDW foreign domestic worker, FRAIL-NH frailty score, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, ACP advance care planning, ED emergency department, PPI proton pump inhibitor;
  2. * denotes p < 0.05