Skip to main content

Table 2 Standardized differences in cumulative all-cause mortality at 2, 5, and 10 years of follow-up by level of social engagement at baseline among residents in nursing homes in Madrid, Spain

From: Social engagement within the facility increased life expectancy in nursing home residents: a follow-up study

  Level of social engagement at baseline
Low/null Moderate High
No. of person-years 691.1 1042.2 571.6
No. of deaths 92 133 43
Mortality ratea 11.6 12.8 6.6
2-year follow-up
 Cumulative mortalityb (%) 11.8 18.8 8.1
 Standardized risk differencec (95% CI)
  Model 1d 0.0 (reference) 3.9 (−4.4 to 12.1) −6.5 (−15.0 to 1.9)
  Model 2e 0.0 (reference) 5.0 (−3.5 to 13.4) −2.3 (−13.9 to 9.3)
  Model 3f 0.0 (reference) 6.5 (−2.3 to 15.4) −0.6 (−11.8 to 10.7)
5-year follow-up
 Cumulative mortalityb (%) 47.4 46.2 20.1
 Standardized risk differencec (95% CI)
  Model 1d 0.0 (reference) −3.7 (−15.6 to 8.2) −24.3 (− 37.4 to −11.1)
  Model 2e 0.0 (reference) −4.5 (−16.7 to 7.8) −22.5 (−38.2 to −6.7)
  Model 3f 0.0 (reference) −2.3 (−14.6 to 10.0) −18.4 (−33.8 to −2.9)
10-year follow-up
 Cumulative mortalityb (%) 68.9 74.4 50.5
 Standardized risk differencec (95% CI)
  Model 1d 0.0 (reference) 4.3 (−7.3 to 15.9) −9.4 (−25.8 to 7.1)
  Model 2e 0.0 (reference) 3.8 (−7.7 to 15.3) −9.3 (−26.0 to 7.4)
  Model 3f 0.0 (reference) 4.6 (−7.4 to 16.6) −7.5 (−24.2 to 9.3)
  1. a Sampling-weighted mortality rates per 100 person-years
  2. bUnstandardized cumulative mortality risks at the specified follow-up times were obtained from sampling-weighted Kaplan-Meier methods stratified by level of social engagement at baseline
  3. c Standardized differences in cumulative mortality at the specified follow-up times which compared levels of social engagement at baseline were obtained from spline-based survival models weighted by combined inverse probability weights and stratified by level of social engagement. 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from robust standard errors of spline coefficients by applying delta methods
  4. d Model 1 was standardized for baseline age (65–74, 75–79, 80–84, 85–89, or ≥ 90 years), sex (women or men), educational level (less than primary, primary, or secondary or more), and marital status (married, single, or widowed/divorced)
  5. e Model 2 was further standardized for baseline facility ownership (public/subsidized or private), facility size (< 100, 100–299, or ≥ 300 beds), length of stay (0–1, 2–4, or ≥ 5 years), assigned caregiver (yes or no), and frequency of external visits (monthly or less, weekly, or daily)
  6. f Model 3 was further standardized for baseline number of chronic conditions (0–1, 2–3, or ≥ 4) and functional dependency (no, mild, or moderate)