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Table 2 Bivariate analysis for the associations between demographic and health characteristics of nursing homes residents and the stages of mild and moderate cognitive impairment (N = 182)

From: Factors influencing the deterioration from cognitive decline of normal aging to dementia among nursing home residents

  Statistic
tests
Mean (SD) or n (%)
Cognitive Impairment
Mild (160) vs. Moderate (22)
df p-value
Age t = −2.773 63.8 (9.79) 68.8 (13.03)   0.031
Sex
 Female Χ2 = 0.024 13 (86.67) 2 (13.33) 1 0.877
 Male   147 (88.02) 20 (11.98)   
Marital Status
 Married Χ2 = 36.7 22 (91.68) 2 (8.32) 1 0.545
 Non-married   138 (87.34) 20 (12.66)   
Education
  Illiterate
  Non illiterate
Fisher’s = 0.875 18 (81.82)
142 (88.75)
4 (81.18)
18 (11.25)
  0.303
Income (Jordanian dinars)  
  < 450JOD Fisher’s = 0.04 151 (87.80) 21 (12.20)   0.835
  > 450JOD   9 (90) 1 (10)   
Type of nursing homes
 Governmental Χ2 = 0.505 71 (89.87) 8 (10.13)   0.47
 Private   89 (86.40) 14 (13.60)   
The number of comorbidities t = − 4.045 1.75 (1.414) 3.18 (2.22)   < 0.001
Hospitalization
  Hospitalized during last year Χ2 = 8.329 40 (76.92) 12 (23.08) 2 0.016
  Non-hospitalized during last year   119 (92.25) 10 (7.75)   
Disability
  With disability
  Without disability
Χ2 = 0.303 4 (80)
156 (88)
1 (20)
21 (12)
1 0.582
Depression t = − 4.809 5.69 (3.36) 9.45 (3.95) 180 < 0.001
Frailty t = − 4.038 7.46 (3.79) 10.86 (2.95)   < 0.001
Quality of life  
  Physical Functioning t = 3.605 38.62 (8.51) 31.61 (8.79) 180 < 0.001
  Role Physical t = 1.659 48.10 (7.89) 45.01 (10.2) 180 0.09
  Bodily Pain t = 2.645 53.35 (7.43) 48.54 (11.3) 180 0.009
  General Health t = 3.451 50.17 (8.64) 43.11 (11.28) 180 < 0.001
  Vitality t = 2.656 47.59 (8.54) 42.33 (9.82) 180 0.009
  Social Functioning t = 3.291 48.78 (7.15) 42.98 (11.3) 180 0.001
  Role Emotional t = 2.062 46.04 (9.01) 41.6 (12.28) 180 0.041
  Mental Health t = 2.318 43.03 (6.98) 39.33 (7.25) 180 0.022
Physical Components Summary t = 3.282 47.68 (7.46) 42.07 (8.03) 180 0.001
Mental Components Summary t = 2.469 46.50 (6.52) 42.57 (9.82) 180 0.041