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Table 4 Associations with in-hospital, post-hospital and total health care costs based on generalized linear models

From: Health care costs of injury in the older population: a prospective multicentre cohort study in the Netherlands

  In-hospitala Post hospitalb Totala
  Exp[β] (95% CI) p Exp[β] (95% CI) p Exp[β] (95% CI) p
Age
65–69 ref   ref   ref  
70–74 1.07 (0.98–1.16) 0.16 1.14 (0.89–1.47) 0.30 1.09 (0.95–1.24) 0.24
75–79 1.10 (1.01–1.20) 0.04 1.28 (1.00–1.62) 0.05 1.19 (1.05–1.36) 0.01
80–84 1.24 (1.13–1.35) < 0.001 1.97 (1.54–2.51) < 0.001 1.53 (1.34–1.74) < 0.001
85–89 1.15 (1.04–1.27) 0.004 2.19 (1.66–2.90) < 0.001 1.51 (1.30–1.75) < 0.001
  ≥ 90 1.06 (0.95–1.17) 0.33 2.48 (1.78–3.45) < 0.001 1.41 (1.19–1.65) < 0.001
Gender
Male ref   ref   ref  
Female 0.94 (0.89–0.99) 0.03 1.34 (1.14–1.57) < 0.001 1.09 (1.00–1.19) 0.04
Cause of trauma
Home and leisure: falls ref   ref   ref  
Home and leisure: other 0.94 (0.87–1.03) 0.20 0.82 (0.64–1.05) 0.12 0.88 (0.77–1.00) 0.05
Traffic 0.94 (0.87–1.01) 0.07 0.96 (0.79–1.18) 0.72 0.95 (0.85–1.06) 0.39
Sport 0.71 (0.59–0.86) < 0.001 0.38 (0.21–0.67) 0.001 0.54 (0.40–0.71) < 0.001
Other 0.87 (0.73–1.04) 0.12 0.49 (0.31–0.80) 0.004 0.72 (0.55–0.95) 0.02
Type of injury
No Hip fracture ref   ref   ref  
Hip fracture 0.86 (0.78–0.94) 0.001 1.40 (1.07–1.83) 0.02 1.09 (0.94–1.25) 0.25
ISS
  < 4 ref   ref   ref  
4–8 1.38 (1.27–1.49) < 0.001 1.52 (1.19–1.93) 0.001 1.47 (1.30–1.66) < 0.001
9–15 1.79 (1.62–1.98) < 0.001 1.58 (1.17–2.14) 0.003 1.75 (1.50–2.04) < 0.001
  ≥ 16 2.45 (2.08–2.88) < 0.001 2.34 (1.48–3.70) < 0.001 2.36 (1.84–3.03) < 0.001
Frailty status
Not frail (GFI 0–3) ref   ref   ref  
Frail (GFI ≥ 4) 1.11 (1.04–1.18) 0.003 1.38 (1.13–1.67) 0.001 1.09 (0.99–1.21) 0.09
Unknown 1.21 (1.12–1.31) < 0.001 1.61 (1.29–2.01) < 0.001 1.36 (1.21–1.54) < 0.001
Comorbidity status
No comorbidities ref   ref   ref  
1 comorbidity 1.21 (1.12–1.31) < 0.001 1.09 (0.87–1.37) 0.44 1.14 (1.01–1.29) 0.04
2 comorbidities 1.15 (1.06–1.25) 0.001 1.58 (1.24–2.03) < 0.001 1.36 (1.19–1.56) < 0.001
  ≥ 3 comorbidities 1.32 (1.22–1.43) < 0.001 2.01 (1.57–2.57) < 0.001 1.58 (1.39–1.80) < 0.001
  1. Adjusted for all variables in the table
  2. CI confidence interval, ISS Injury Severity Score, GFI Groningen Frailty Index
  3. a Based on 1909 cases
  4. b Based on 1369 cases