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Table 2 Primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline 3 and 9 months post intervention (mean ± SD)

From: Exercise interveNtion outdoor proJect in the cOmmunitY for older people – results from the ENJOY Seniors Exercise Park project translation research in the community

Measure Baseline 3 months P value
Baseline vs 3 months post
(n = 80)
\( {\eta}_p^2 \)
Baseline vs 3 months
9 months P value
Baseline vs 9 months post (n = 58)
\( {\eta}_p^2 \)
Baseline vs 9 months
P value
3 months vs 9 months (n = 58)
\( {\eta}_p^2 \)
3 months vs 9 months
Physical activity level CHAMPS (per week)
 All exercise - caloric expenditure 2581.9 ± 1705.6 3472.3 ± 2182.7 < 0.01* 0.05d 3272.1 ± 2078.5 0.01* 0.09c 0.6 0.00d
 All exercise – frequency 15.6 ± 7.5 21.6 ± 8.6 < 0.01* 0.12c 20.16 ± 9.7 < 0.01* 0.2b 0.8 0.00d
 All exercise – minutes 726.0 ± 416.8 915.5 ± 492.0 < 0.01* 0.04d 894.1 ± 519.9 0.03* 0.08c 0.5 0.00d
 Moderate exercise - caloric expenditure 587.2 ± 914.8 1036.2 ± 1328.1 0.01* 0.03d 1091.0 ± 1379.4 0.02* 0.09c 0.2 0.02d
 Moderate exercise - frequency 2.8 ± 3.4 5.6 ± 3.8 < 0.01* 0.12c 5.4 ± 5.7 < 0.01* 0.1c 0.7 0.00d
 Moderate exercise - minutes 119.4 ± 178.6 197.4 ± 235.9 0.02* 0.03d 227.4 ± 290.5 0.01* 0.1c 0.07 0.05d
Physical function
 Sit to stand 10.1 ± 3.6 12.1 ± 4.1 < 0.01* 0.06c 12.5 ± 3.7 < 0.01* 0.3b 0.5 0.00d
 Two-minute walk (m) 121.9 ± 30.4 133.1 ± 36.3 0.03* 0.02d 134.5 ± 32.6 < 0.01* 0.6b 0.4 0.01d
 Walking speed (m/s) 1.3 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.4 < 0.01* 0.04d 1.6 ± 0.3 < 0.01* 0.3b 0.08 0.06d
 Step testa 20.4 ± 6.7 27.3 ± 7.0 < 0.01* 0.20b 30.2 ± 8.0 < 0.01* 0.2b ^0.01* 0.12c
Health related quality of life
 Falls risk (FROP-Com) 11.0 ± 5.0 7.7 ± 3.9 p < 0.01* 0.09c 8.3 ± 4.5 < 0.01* 0.3b ɬ0.01* 0.10c
 Quality of life (EQ-5D-5L -VAS) 75.6 ± 14.8 80.1 ± 14.0 0.04* 0.02 d 76.5 ± 16.3 0.5 0.00d 0.2 0.02d
 Wellbeing (WHO-5) 61.8 ± 19.6 70.0 ± 17.5 < 0.01* 0.03d 66.6 ± 19.3 0.1 0.04d 0.1 0.03d
 Loneliness UCLA 3 4.7 ± 1.6 4.3 ± 1.5 0.04* 0.01d 4.5 ± 1.5 0.9 0.00d 0.5 0.00d
 Depression (GDS-15) 3.1 ± 2.9 2.5 ± 2.4 < 0.01* 0.01d 2.6 ± 2.5 0.02* 0.09c 0.8 0.00d
 Fear of falls (Short FES-I) 11.1 ± 3.4 9.1 ± 2.2 < 0.01* 0.10c 9.5 ± 2.4 < 0.01* 0.2b 0.5 0.00d
 Social isolation (LSNS6) 17.2 ± 5.4 17.6 ± 5.0 0.3 0.00d 17.5 ± 6.1 0.6 0.00d 0.7 0.00d
 Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) 57.9 ± 18.8 58.9 ± 17.3 0.5 0.00d 57.9 ± 16.3 0.8 0.00d 0.6 0.04d
 Enjoyment (PACES) 43.4 ± 10.1 48.5 ± 7.2 < 0.01* 0.07c 45.8 ± 1.6 0.6 0.00d < ¥0.01* 0.15c
  1. *Significant at < 0.05, ^improvement in Step Test; ɬ increase in falls risk (FROP-Com), ¥ reduction of enjoyment (PACES)
  2. aThe score is the sum of both limbs
  3. bLarge effect size
  4. cMedium effect size
  5. dSmall effect size