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Table 3 Within-group changes before and after the intervention and between-group differences in changes

From: Effectiveness of a peer-based intervention on loneliness and social isolation of older Chinese immigrants in Canada: a randomized controlled trial

Outcomes Intervention (n = 30) Control (n = 30) Time* Group effect: p-value Between-group difference (95% CI) Effect size (Cohen’s d)
T2-T1, M (SD)/n (%) Change (p-value) T2-T1, M (SD) Change (p-value)
Primary outcomes
 Loneliness −.63 (1.45) 2.39(.02)e .53 (1.33) −2.19(.04) e .018 1.17(.45 to 1.89) .834
 Barriers to social participation −1.27 (2.05) 3.28(.001)d .13(.73) −1.21(.226)d .018 −.57(− 1.00 to −.13) .908
 Social support .43 (4.62) −.51(.61)e −1.4 (4.78) 1.60(.12)e .460
Secondary outcomes
 Life satisfaction 5 (16.7%) 5.00(.025)c 1 (3.33%) 1.00(.32)c N/Af
 Happiness 1.07 (1.53) −3.36(.0008)d .47 (2.00) −1.11(.27)d .36
 Depression 7 (23.3%) 7.00(.0082)c −1 (3.33%) .20(.65)c .06
 Anxiety −.5 (1.43) 1.187(.235)d −.27(.91) 1.39(.17)d .657
 Resilience .73 (1.44) −2.44 (.01)d −.63 (1.13) 2.74(.006)d .004 −1.37(− 2.03 to −.70) 1.051
 Purpose in life −1.6 (4.94) 1.946(.052)d −.67 (6.24) .76(.445)d .801
  1. aIndependent sample t-test; bWilcoxon rank-sum test; cMcNemar’s test; dWilcoxon signed rank test; ePaired-sample test; fAs the expected frequency in table cells was low, statistical analysis could not be performed