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Table 2 Comparison of outcome measures between intervention and control groups at baseline

From: Effectiveness of a peer-based intervention on loneliness and social isolation of older Chinese immigrants in Canada: a randomized controlled trial

Outcomes Intervention (n = 30) Control (n = 30) Difference (p-value)
M (SD) / n (%) M (SD) / n (%)
Primary outcomes
 Loneliness 3.27 (1.41) 2.63 (1.21) −1.86(.07)a
 Social support 22.10 (7.67) 23 (6.64) .49(.63)a
 Barriers to social participation 5.333 (2.218) 3.8 (1.064) −2.939(.0033)b
Secondary outcomes
 Life satisfaction    .052c
 Unsatisfied 7 (23.33%) 1 (3.33%)  
 Satisfied 23 (76.67%) 29 (96.67%)  
 Happiness 6.60 (2.03) 6.90 (1.79) .523(.601)b
 Depression    .552c
 No 21 (70%) 24 (80%)  
 Yes 9 (30%) 6 (20%)  
 Anxiety .87 (1.59) 1 (1.62) .296(.767)b
 Resilience 5.37 (1.52) 5.80 (1.45) 1.131(.263)a
 Purpose in life 19.33 (9.84) 20.83 (9.63) .60(.55)a
  1. aIndependent sample t-test; bWilcoxon rank-sum test; cFisher’s exact test