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Table 1 Health characteristics, autonomy assessment and home services of elderly patients visiting EDs according to professional home services’ presence

From: Emergency department outcome of elderly patients assisted by professional home services, the EPIGER study

Characteristics All patients
N = 1168
N(%)
No services
N = 800
N(%)
Services
N = 368
N(%)
P-value*
Age, y.o median (Q1;Q3) 86 (83;89) 85 (82;88) 88 (85;91) < 0.001
Sex ratio 0.72 0.75 0.65 0.310
Medical history:
 None 38(3) 31(4) 7(2) 0.077
 Cardio Vascular risk factors 686(59) 467(58) 219(60) 0.714
 Cardio Vascular 772(66) 504(63) 268(73) 0.001
 Respiratory 198(17) 122(15) 76(21) 0.022
 Neurologic 272(23) 152(19) 120(33) < 0.001
 Psychiatric 89(8) 54(7) 35(10) 0.099
 Trauma 91(8) 58(7) 33(9) 0.309
 Hematology/oncology 212(18) 136(17) 76(21) 0.132
 Urology 192(16) 130(16) 62(17) 0.798
 Gastro enterology 189(16) 117(15) 72(20) 0.033
  ≥ 2 categories 496(42) 293(37) 203(55) < 0.001
Usual medication
 None 47(4) 40(5) 7(2) 0.012
  ≥ 3 daily medications 689(59) 448(56) 241(65) 0.002
 Hypertension 744(64) 509(64) 235(64) 0.938
 Antiplatelets 424(36) 285(36) 139(38) 0.478
 Anticoagulant 273(23) 166(21) 107(29) 0.002
 Psychotropics 264(23) 158(20) 106(29) 0.001
Cognitive impairment 308(26) 156(20) 152(41) < 0.001
Relatives present in the ED 421(36) 304(38) 117(32) 0.040
Registered personal directive 18(2) 12(2) 6(2) 0.775
Autonomy assessment
 Living alone 556(48) 346(43) 210(57) < 0.001
 Living as couple 446(38) 340(43) 106(29) < 0.001
 Helping spouse 136(12) 97(12) 39(11) 0.252
Knaus classification
 A 437(37) 385(48) 52(14) < 0.001
 B 451(39) 281(35) 170(46) < 0.001
 C 230(20) 97(12) 133(36) < 0.001
 D 4(0.3) 0(0) 4(1) 0.003
Autonomy assessment:
 ADLa, median (Q1;Q3) 1(0;4) 0(0;1) 3(1;6) < 0.001
 Severe disability (ADLa ≥ 10) 66(6) 29(4) 37(10) < 0.001
 Loss of autonomy (ADLa ≥ 6) 194(17) 73(9) 121(33) < 0.001
 Early disability (ADLa ≤ 4) 877(75) 674(84) 203(55) < 0.001
 Disability for intimate tasks 136(12) 41(5) 95(26) < 0.001
 Walking disability 123(11) 57(7) 66(18) < 0.001
Home services
Type of services
 Professional 368(32) 0(0) 368(100)  
 Relatives 621(53) 418(52) 203(55) 0.021
 Cleaning only 181(16) 181(23) 0(0)  
 Technical help 220(19) 77(10) 143(39) < 0.001
Tasks dedicated to caregivers:
 Cleaning 599(51) 298(37) 301(82) < 0.001
 Groceries 369(32) 128(16) 241(66) < 0.001
 Bathing 342(29) 81(10) 261(71) < 0.001
 Clothing 232(20) 55(7) 177(48) < 0.001
 Walking 79(7) 16(2) 63(17) < 0.001
 Eating 182(16) 50(6) 132(36) < 0.001
 Delivering meals 138(12) 41(5) 97(26) < 0.001
 Telealarm 119(10) 43(5) 76(21) < 0.001
 Walking device 344(29) 159(20) 185(50) < 0.001
 Nurse care 131(11) 54(7) 77(21) < 0.001
  1. *P-value when comparing patients benefitting from professional home care and those who do not. a ADL Activity of Daily Living. Score ranging from 0 (full autonomy) to 12 (bedridden)