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Table 3 Multivariate regression results for relationships of health behaviours to QoL and health outcomes. Analyses were controlled for background characteristics.

From: Social participation is an important health behaviour for health and quality of life among chronically ill older Chinese people

  QoLa Cognitive functionb Physical functionc
Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients p Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients p Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients p
B SE Beta B SE Beta B SE Beta
Age (years) .003 .001 .048 <.001 −.247 .014 −.224 <.001 .047 .004 .179 <.001
Gender (female) −.035 .016 −.030 .031 −1.544 .270 −.076 <.001 .065 .069 .013 .344
Residence (rural) .003 .017 .003 .849 −3.153 .271 −.154 <.001 .595 .069 .122 <.001
Marital status (non-single) .073 .019 .048 <.001 .838 .318 .032 .008 −.118 .081 −.019 .147
Education (lower) −.065 .017 −.054 <.001 −3.358 .274 −.162 <.001 .0.18 .070 .004 .797
Income (quintile 2) .154 .023 .103 <.001 .809 .371 .032 .029 −.293 .095 −.048 .002
Income (quintile 3) .282 .023 .193 <.001 2.092 .375 .083 <.001 −.164 .095 −.028 .085
Income (quintile 4) .350 .023 .246 <.001 4.771 .378 .195 <.001 −.438 .096 −.075 <.001
Income (quintile 5, highest) .507 .024 .354 <.001 5.897 .399 .234 <.001 −.581 .101 −.098 <.001
Health behaviours
 Social participation indexd .021 .002 .128 <.001 .437 .033 .154 <.001 −.068 .008 −.101 <.001
 FV intake (sufficient) .107 .015 .087 <.001 .267 .248 .013 .282 −.032 .064 −.006 .618
 PA (active) .112 .015 .091 <.001 .718 .245 .033 .003 −.786 .062 −.155 <.001
 Daily smoker (yes) .008 .020 .006 .689 −.536 .325 −.021 .100 −.071 .083 −.012 .393
 Constant 2.586 .076 <.001 48.880 1.249 <.001 −.467 .318 .142
Overall adjusted R2 .160     .293     .113    
Model F value 90.38    <.001 185.09    <.001 61.87    <.001
n 6099     5761     6200    
  1. QoL quality of life, SE standard error, FV fruit and vegetable, PA physical activity
  2. aHigher scores represent better QoL
  3. bHigher scores represent better cognitive function
  4. cHigher scores represent poorer physical function
  5. dHigher scores represent more social participation
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