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Table 2 Synthesis of determinants of caregiver burden: comparison between Adelman et al. (2014) [21] and the current review

From: Determinants of overburdening among informal carers: a systematic review

Adelman et al. (2014)a [21] Current review
Hypothesis ASMb (support found, no support found) Categorisation Risk Factors Determinants Categorisation (ASM)b Hypothesis ASMb
(support found, no support found)
H1 (direct relation) Demographics Female sex Female sex Background characteristic H1 (direct relation)
  Low education   
  Cohabitation with care recipient Cohabitation/Living distance Miscellaneous factor Inconclusive
H1 (direct relation) Psychosocial Coping strategies Coping strategies Moderators H1 (direct relation)
H5 partially supported: no moderation of coping strategies
  Social Support   H5 partially supported: moderation of social support
  Depression and depressive symptoms Global (self-esteem)
Situational (loss of self, competence)
Intrapsychic stressors H1 (direct relation)
H4 (mediation) not supported
  Perceived patient distress   
H1 (direct relation) Caregiving context Social isolation and decreased social activity Role conflict
(Restriction of social life)
Role stressors H1 (direct relation)
H3 (mediator between duration of caregiving and caregiver burden)
  Inability to continue regular employment Role overload   
  Financial stress   
  Lack of choice   
  Caregiving time and effort Duration of caregiving General stressors H1 (direct relation)
H3 (mediated by role stressors)
  Specific Illness   
  Dependency levels, both physically as mentally   
  Care demands   
  Problematic behavior   
  1. aRefers to risk factors of caregiver burden in Table 1 “The Epidemiology of Caregiver Burden” p1054 Adelman et al. (2014) [21]
  2. bThe Adapted Stress Model (ASM) is based on stress theories, notably the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus, 1984) [28] and the stress process model (Pearlin, 1990) [29], as well as role theory (Biddle, 1986) [30]