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Table 2 Baseline characteristics across stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

From: Is kidney function associated with cognition and mood in late life?

  Stages of CKD p-value
Stage 1–2 (n = 830) Stage 3A (n = 862) Stage 3B (n = 419) Stage 4 (n = 141)
Age, years 78.6 (76.5–81.1) 79.6 (77.3–83.1) 81 (78.2–85.1) 81 (77.7–84.8) < 0.001
Women, % 61.1 56.8 47.7 40.4 < 0.001
Living alone, % 23.1 23.7 26 32.6 ns
Education, years 12 (8–16) 11.5 (8–15) 10 (8–13) 8 (8–12) < 0.001
Smoking status,
 Current smoker, % 5.5 3.6 4.1 3.5 ns
 Former smoker, % 35.7 40 44.3 44.9 0.017
Alcohol ≥1 unit a day, % 26.6 24.2 27.2 24.8 ns
BMI, kg/m2 26.7 (24.2–29.6) 27.4 (24.8–30.6) 27.7 (25.3–31.0) 27.7 (24.9–31.4) < 0.001
ADL-independent, % 97.1 95.7 92.1 90.1 < 0.001
iADL-independent, % 66 79.5 72.3 70.2 < 0.001
MMSE, score 29 (27–30) 29 (27–30) 29 (27–30) 30 (28–30) 0.001
 MMSE < 24, % 6.4 7.7 9.3 5 ns*
GDS, score 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) ns
 GDS > 5, % 13 15 14.1 14.2 ns
Hypertension, % 66.3 77.6 89.3 96.5 < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus, % 19.3 22.6 38.2 36.2 < 0.001
TIA, % 8 8.4 11.2 7.8 ns
Stroke, % 4.3 5.7 7.9 9.2 0.023
Atrial fibrillation, % 9.3 16.6 22 22.7 < 0.001
COPD, % 8.9 11.3 16.7 17.7 < 0.001
Cancer, % 14.2 17.2 20.8 24.8 0.002
CHF, % 8.4 17.9 23.9 34.8 < 0.001
Vascular disease, % 10.8 12.3 16.5 13.5 0.042
CIRS-G, total score 7 (4–10) 7 (5–10) 10 (7–14) 11.5 (8.3–15) < 0.001
CIRS-G, severity index 1.4 (1.2–1.7) 1.5 (1.2–1.8) 1.7 (1.3–1.9) 1.8 (1.5–2) < 0.001
eGFR-BIS, mL/min/1.73 m2 67.2 (63.6–73.1) 53.8 (50.2–56.9) 39.0 (34.9–42.3) 24 (20.5–27.1) < 0.001
ACR, mg/g 8.3 (1.9–18.7) 9.4 (3.3–24.3) 24.5 (7–121.8) 161 (53.7–1006) < 0.001
Albuminuria, % 14 20.8 45.6 81.6 < 0.001
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as median (IQR)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI Body Mass Index, (i) ADL (instrumental) Activities of Daily Living, MMSE Mini–Mental State Examination, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, TIA Transient Ischemic Attack, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, CHF Congestive Heart Failure, CIRS-G Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics, eGFR-BIS Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, ACR Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio
  3. *Adjusted for age, sex and education