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Table 2 Demographic characteristics of older adults measured for Functional Independence

From: Discriminative validity of the Core outcome set functional independence in a population of older adults

Participant Characteristics Total Independent living No help with (i)ADL Independent living Help with (i)ADL Living in residential care facility
n = 178 n = 66 n = 69 n = 43
Age in years at study participation (mean, sd) 80.19 (8.05) 76.50 (6.40)* 80.77 (7.30)* 84.93 (8.85)*
Gender (n, %)
male 72 40.4 32 48.5 26 37.7 14 32.6
female 106 59.6 34 51.5 43 62.3 29 67.4
Educational level (n, %)
none 1 0.6 1 1.5 0 0.0 0 0.0
primary 121 68.0 42 63.3 47 68.2 32 74.4
secondary 38 21.3 15 22.7 13 18.8 10 23.3
tertiary 18 10.1 8 12.1 9 13.0 1 2.3
Type of residence in case of living in the community (n,%)
alone 80 59.3 39 59.1 41 59.4   na
with other(s) 55 40.7 27 40.9 28 40.6   na
No. of medical conditions (n, %)
none 12 6.7 9*,† 13.6 2* 2.9 1 2.3
one or two 73 41.1 38*,† 57.6 23* 33.3 12 27.9
three or more 93 52.2 19*,† 28.8 44* 63.8 30 69.8
  1. (i)ADL (instrumental) activities of daily living; n number of participants; sd standard deviation; no. number; % = percentage; *,† = significant difference between groups p < 0
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