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Table 3 Outcome measures and summary of main findings of all selected studies

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the effect of aquatic and land exercise on dynamic balance in older adults

Study Outcome measures Follow-up Adverse events Participants feedback Results
Adsett et al. 2017 [30] 6MWT, TUG, 10-m walk test (speed), BOOMER N Shortness of breath (1), dizziness (2) Reported LE group showed greater improvements in 6MWT. No significant differences in 10-m gait speed and BOOMER.
Arnold et al. 2008 [11] BBS, FRT, backward tandem walk N Pain: 29% AE, 52% LE. Muscle cramping and stiffness: 25% AE, 3% LE NR AE group showed a greater improvement only in the backward tandem walk versus LE group. No significant differences in BBS and FRT between two groups.
Avelar et al. 2010 [32] DGI, BBS, Tandem gait test, 10-m gait speed test N NR NR Both intervention groups showed improvements only in DGI and BBS, with no difference between groups.
Bergamin et al. 2013 [34] 8-foot up-and-go test N None NR Both intervention groups showed improvements, with significantly greater improvement in AE group.
Pérez de la Cruz et al. 2017 [37] BBS, Tinetti Scale, FTSTS, TUG 1 month None NR Only AE group showed improvements in all variables, except the FTSTS. LE group showed no improvements in any of the balance measures.
Pérez de la Cruz et al. 2018 [36] TUG, FTSTS, 1 month NR NR AE (Ai Chi) group showed improvements in TUG and FTSTS in post-treatment and 1-month follow-up, whereas the dryland group showed no significant differences.
Simmons and Hansen 1996 [33] FRT N (10–12: injury tracking) NR NR AE group showed gradual improvements in each week. LE group showed improvement only in the initial week. At week 5 (post), AE group showed significant improvement compared to LE groups.
Vivas et al. 2011 [38] FRT, BBS, 5-m walk test, TUG 17 days NR NR Both exercise groups showed improvements in FRT. Only the AE group improved in the BBS.
Volpe et al 2014 [39] Instrumental version of FRT, TUG, BBS, N None NR Both groups showed improvements in all outcome variables, with a better improvement in AE group BBS.
Volpe et al. 2017 [40] TUG, BBS 2 months NR NR Both groups showed improvements in all parameters, with no intergroup differences.
Zivi et al., 2018 [35] BBS, Dynamic Gait Index N NR NR AE group showed a greater improvement in the Dynamic Gait Index. No significant difference in BBS between groups.
  1. Outcome measurements included in the meta-analysis were highlighted (bold), AE aquatic exercise, LE land exercise, NR not reported, DGI Dynamic gait index, BBS Berg Balance Scale, FTSTS Five Times Sit-to-Stand test, TUG Timed Up and Go test, FRT Functional Research Test, 6MWT 6-min walk test, BOOMER Balance Outcome Measure for Elder Rehabilitation