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Table 6 Odds ratio of dementia in relation to environmental features and individual characteristics in residential townships by level of salary-based insurance premium

From: Effects of physical and social environments on the risk of dementia among Taiwanese older adults: a population-based case-control study

Variables

DependentsC

<MedianC

≥MedianC

Intercept (SD)a

−0.28(0.13)*

− 0.56(0.15)*

− 0.54 (0.15)*

Physical environments

 Parks, greeneries, and square area (ref: Low)b

  Medium

0.99 (0.92–1.07)

1.05 (0.94–1.16)

0.91 (0.84–0.99)*

  High

1.09 (0.99–1.19)

1.00 (0.89–1.14)

0.97 (0.89–1.07)

 Playgrounds and sport venues (ref: Low)b

  Medium

0.98 (0.90–1.07)

0.98 (0.87–1.10)

0.95 (0.87–1.04)

  High

0.94 (0.84–1.06)

0.97 (0.84–1.13)

0.85 (0.77–0.93)*

 Community center (ref: Low)b

  Medium

0.96 (0.87–1.06)

0.96 (0.84–1.09)

0.95 (0.87–1.04)

  High

1.00 (0.82–1.22)

0.87 (0.67–1.12)

0.99 (0.88–1.12)

Social environments

 Median annual family income (ref: Low)b

  Medium

1.06 (0.90–1.24)

1.25 (0.99–1.57)

1.06 (0.95–1.17)

  High

1.00 (0.84–1.18)

1.15 (0.90–1.46)

1.03 (0.91–1.16)

Illiterate people aged65 (ref: Low)b

  Medium

0.97 (0.90–1.05)

1.02 (0.92–1.14)

1.03 (0.95–1.13)

  High

0.96 (0.84–1.09)

1.06 (0.88–1.27)

1.03 (0.95–1.13)

 Elderly living alone (ref: Low)b

  Medium

1.02 (0.94–1.10)

1.00 (0.90–1.10)

1.06 (0.97–1.16)

  High

1.04 (0.94–1.16)

0.91 (0.79–1.05)

1.07 (0.97–1.19)

  1. aSD Standard deviation
  2. b Low: < 33%, Medium: 34–65%; High: ≥ 66%
  3. C Based on multilevel logistic regression and adjusted for occupational status, number of comorbidities, parks and greeneries, playgrounds and sport venues, community center, median annual family income, illiterate people aged65, elderly living alone, hospitals and clinics, and urbanization status
  4. * P < 0.05