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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by waves in CLHLS, 2011/2012 to 2014, mean (SD)/n (%)

From: Hearing loss and cognitive function among Chinese older adults: the role of participation in leisure activities

Variables Wave 1 Wave 2
Total (n = 8844) Male (n = 4089) Female (n = 4755) Total (n = 5465) Male (n = 2628) Female (2837)
MMSE scoresa 26.08(5.35) 27.13(4.44) 25.19(5.88) 26.51(4.67) 27.46(3.88) 25.66(4.47)
Cognitive impairmentb 749(8.47) 189(4.62) 560(11.78) 336(6.19) 97(3.69) 239(8.42)
Self-reported HLb 3937(44.52) 1706(41.72) 2231(46.92) 2137(39.38) 997(37.94) 1141(40.22)
Activity engagementa 9.98(6.62) 11.43(6.58) 8.73(6.39) 10.48(6.65) 11.61(6.64) 9.51(6.54)
 Productive activitiesa 2.13(1.90) 2.04(1.88) 2.21(1.91) 2.27(1.88) 2.11(1.87) 2.43(1.88)
 Outdoor activitiesa 2.21(1.84) 2.45(1.79) 2.01(1.85) 2.22(1.84) 2.39(1.81) 2.07(1.85)
 Intellectual activitiesa 0.57(0.98) 0.87(1.13) 0.31(0.75) 0.61(1.02) 0.90(1.15) 0.35(0.80)
 Recreational activitiesa 1.40(1.10) 1.61(1.07) 1.22(1.10) 1.49(1.09) 1.65(1.06) 1.35(1.10)
 Social activitiesa 0.30(0.87) 0.38(0.96) 0.24(0.78) 0.32(0.89) 0.39(0.96) 0.27(0.83)
Agea 85.08(10.98) 82.84(10.06) 87.01(11.37) 84.74(9.99) 82.97(9.16) 86.13(10.63)
Ruralb 4624(52.28) 2097(51.28) 2527(53.14) 2835(52.83) 1366(52.46) 1501(53.63)
Illiterateb 4987(56.39) 1294(31.65) 3693(77.67) 2825(52.05) 771(29.34) 2066(72.82)
Ever smokingb 1439(16.36) 1158(28.47) 281(5.94) 774(14.33) 654(24.99) 123(4.36)
Current smokingb 1639(18.64) 1370(33.68) 269(5.69) 977(18.09) 843(32.21) 144(5.11)
Ever drinkingb 1270(14.51) 947(23.43) 323(6.86) 575(10.68) 463(17.72) 114(4.06)
Current drinkingb 1520(17.37) 1142(28.26) 378(8.03) 876(16.28) 716(27.40) 167(5.95)
Self-reported poor healthb 1501(17.22) 581(14.37) 920(19.69) 856(15.97) 366(14.04) 492(17.62)
Hypertensionb 3126(50.76) 1388(49.62) 1738(51.71) 2167(56.97) 1011(55.19) 1168(58.43)
Diabetesb 1118(21.73) 528(22.34) 590(21.22) 904(28.99) 437(28.52) 476(29.55)
  1. a variable being reported with mean (SD). b variable being reported with number (proportion)