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Table 3 Treatment Effects Compared to Placebo/Control in a Network Meta-Analysis Model Incorporating Randomized and Non-Randomized Studies: Fracture, Mortality, Cerebrovascular Event, and Fall

From: Safety of pharmacologic interventions for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Intervention (vs. Placebo/Control)Combined RCT + NRS RR (95% CrI)RCT RR
(95% CrI)
NRS RR
(95% CrI)
Fracture
 Anticonvulsants0.63 (0.05 to 6.54)0.63 (0.08 to 4.33)
 Antidepressants0.82 (0.16 to 3.24)0.74 (0.12 to 3.11)0.94 (0.25 to 2.39)
 Antipsychotics0.89 (0.29 to 2.68)0.77 (0.36 to 1.58)1.05 (0.41 to 2.25)
 Cholinesterase Inhibitor + Memantine6.18 (0.5 to 325.1)6.1 (0.7 to 294.8)
 Cholinesterase Inhibitors1.02 (0.36 to 2.76)1.23 (0.81 to 1.91)0.84 (0.48 to 1.52)
 Memantine0.59 (0.1 to 3.38)0.59 (0.17 to 1.93)
Mortality
 Anticonvulsants1.28 (0.82 to 1.99)1.27 (0.81 to 2.0)1.29 (0.85 to 1.9)
 Antidepressants0.86 (0.5 to 1.48)0.86 (0.49 to 1.5)0.87 (0.52 to 1.43)
 Antipsychotics1.33 (1.01 to 1.73)1.28 (1 to 1.59)1.38 (1.13 to 1.69)
 Anxiolytic/hypnotics0.84 (0.41 to 1.72)0.84 (0.44 to 1.61)
 Cholinesterase Inhibitor + Memantine1.04 (0.68 to 1.58)1.02 (0.66 to 1.52)1.06 (0.72 to 1.57)
 Cholinesterase Inhibitors0.84 (0.65 to 1.1)0.84 (0.71 to 0.99)0.84 (0.68 to 1.04)
 Memantine1.15 (0.84 to 1.59)1.12 (0.87 to 1.43)1.17 (0.87 to 1.64)
Cerebrovascular Event
 Anticonvulsants1.03 (0.1 to 11.56)1.02 (0.15 to 8.05)
 Antidepressants0.27 (< 0.01 to 8.34)0.28 (< 0.01 to 6.8)
 Antipsychotics1.76 (0.57 to 4.79)2.02 (1.25 to 3.39)1.51 (0.63 to 3.28)
 Cholinesterase Inhibitor + Memantine1.04 (0.16 to 5.73)1.05 (0.27 to 3.29)
 Cholinesterase Inhibitors0.93 (0.3 to 2.5)0.99 (0.72 to 1.42)0.86 (0.33 to 1.89)
 Dextromethorphan-Quinidine1.11 (0.03 to 40.95)1.11 (0.04 to 30.25)
 Memantine0.76 (0.18 to 3.11)0.76 (0.45 to 1.28)
Fall
 Anticonvulsants1.09 (0.26 to 4.6)1.09 (0.64 to 1.89)
 Antidepressants1.32 (0.49 to 3.98)1.16 (0.67 to 1.97)1.59 (0.79 to 2.84)
 Antipsychotics1.21 (0.5 to 3.74)1.05 (0.91 to 1.23)1.54 (0.82 to 2.88)
 Cholinesterase Inhibitor + Memantine0.97 (0.24 to 3.94)0.96 (0.66 to 1.43)
 Cholinesterase Inhibitors0.94 (0.24 to 3.73)0.94 (0.79 to 1.14)
 Dextromethorphan-Quinidine3.66 (0.72 to 18.91)3.65 (1.4 to 10.42)
 Memantine0.95 (0.24 to 3.82)0.95 (0.79 to 1.15)
  1. Abbreviations: CrI credible interval, NRS non-randomized study, RCT randomized trial, RR relative risk