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Table 5 Gait characteristics before tripping, and reactive balance measures in response to tripping, for the three trip groups. Values are means (standard deviation)

From: Perturbation-based balance training targeting both slip- and trip-induced falls among older adults: a randomized controlled trial

  Baseline
(n = 17)
Post-Control
(n = 5)
Post-PBT
(n = 8)
ANOVA
p-value
Gait characteristics before tripping
 Gait speed (m/s) 1.50 (0.11) 1.53 (0.11) 1.47 (0.09) .093
 Step length (%BH) 43.6 (2.5) 43.5 (2.7) 43.5 (2.9) .988
 Minimum toe clearance (mm) 19.1 (10.8) 15.0 (3.6) 20.4 (8.2) .421
 Required coefficient of friction 0.21 (0.02) 0.21 (0.02) 0.20 (0.02) .550
 Gait phase at trip onset (% swing) 60.8 (2.4) 62.3 (4.2) 61.7 (1.7) .550
Reactive balance in response to tripping
 Trunk angle at TD (deg) 37.0 (9.6) 36.9 (2.2) 41.1 (3.7) .059
 Recovery step length (%BH) 54.3 (14.1) 53.7 (8.8) 64.1 (10.5) .137
 Minimum hip height (% standing hip) 88.9 (5.4) 86.9 (7.1) 90.5 (2.8) .465
 Margin of stability at TD (cm) −39.2 (15.3) −56.4 (24.7) −31.7 (9.1) .112
  1. See Methods text for boundaries used to calculate margin of stability
  2. BH body height, TD touchdown of first step over trip obstacle