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Table 2 Gait characteristics before slipping, and reactive balance measures in response to slipping, for the three slip groups. Values are means (standard deviation)

From: Perturbation-based balance training targeting both slip- and trip-induced falls among older adults: a randomized controlled trial

  Baseline
(n = 11)
Post-Control
(n = 5)
Post-PBT
(n = 11)
ANOVA
p-value
Gait characteristics before slipping
 Gait speed (m/s) 1.48 (0.11) 1.53 (0.13) 1.55 (0.11) .314
 Step length (%BH) 43.3 (0.3) 44.7 (0.4) 44.7 (0.2) .530
 Minimum toe clearance (mm) 17.0 (6.9) 26.8 (14.0) 22.1 (9.5) .230
 Required coefficient of friction 0.21 (0.02) 0.22 (0.03) 0.21 (0.02) .756
Reactive balance in response to slipping
 Peak slip speed (m/s) 2.80 (0.32) 3.15 (0.33) 2.58 (0.41) .041
 Slip distance (cm) 80.8 (4.5) 74.2 (6.6) 71.4 (4.5) .346
 Non-slipping toe to COM at TD (%BH) −5.8 (6.0) −2.7 (6.8) − 2.2 (9.2) .498
 Minimum hip height (%) 80.6 (3.9) 82.0 (5.7) 86.2 (4.4) .043
 Margin of stability at TD (cm) 5.9 (4.8) 13.6 (6.8) 17.0 (12.3) .027
 vCOM relative to BOS at TD (m/s) 1.02 (0.23) 0.52 (0.32) 0.24 (0.62) .004
  1. See Methods text for boundaries used to calculate margin of stability. A smaller positive vCOM relative to BOS indicates the slipping foot and COM are moving apart less quickly
  2. BH body height, COM center of mass, TD touchdown of non-slipping foot after reactive stepping, vCOM anterior-posterior velocity of the COM, BOS base of support
  3. Bold indicates statistically significant main effect of slip group. Minimum hip height is expressed as a percentage of standing hip height