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Table 2 Relatives’ HRQoL (EQ5D index) and burden (Negative impact scale in COPE index) and their bivariate associations with the selected variables

From: Factors associated with health-related quality of life and burden on relatives of older people with multi-morbidity: a dyadic data study

Variables HRQoL Burden
Relatives’ data r rho p r rho p
Demography
 Spouse/partner (0 = no; 1 = yes)   −.16 .007*   −.12 .042*
 Work/studying (0 = no; 1 = yes)   .28 <.001*   .01 .892
 Education level (0 = none to 4 = high/university level)   .18 .003*   .16 .009*
HRQoL (−.594 = worse than dead to 1 = full health)     −.182   .003*
Burden and strain
 Burden (7 = never to 28 = always) −.182   .003*    
 Care hours/week provided by the relative   −.16 .017*   .20 .002*
Coping
 Positive value in caring in COPE index (4 = never to 16 = always) .042   .483 −.493   <.001**
 Anxiety in close relationships (1 = low to 7 = high) −.190   .002* .080   .188
 Avoidance in close relationships (1 = low to 7 = high) −.125   .040* −.024   .701
Sense of security and support
 Care interaction (1 = never to 6 = always) .133   .038* −.225   <.001**
 Mastery (1 = never to 6 = always) .132   .027* −.360   <.001**
 Patient situation (1 = never to 6 = always) .127   .039* −.230   <.001**
 Quality of support (4 = never to 16 = always) .030   .62 −.395   <.001**
Older person’s health
 Changed behaviour (1 = never to 5 = very often) −.215   <.001* .474   <.001**
 Perception of future health trajectory (1 = recovered; 2 = neither good nor poor; 3 = deteriorating)   −.13 .024*   .26 <.001**
Older persons’ data
Health
  General depression (1 = not depressed to 15 = depressed) −.160   .007* .197   .001**
Sense of security and support
  Care interaction (1 = never to 6 = always) .124   .038* −.084   .16
  Identity (1 = never to 6 = always) .093   .118 −.150   .012*
  Mastery (1 = never to 6 = always) .116   .050* −.183   .003*
  Quality of support (4 = never to 16 = always) .162   .006* −.138   .022*
  1. Bold figures = variables used in the stepwise regression analysis
  2. *p ≤ 0.05; ** ≤ 0.001