Skip to main content

Table 4 Summary of participants’ scores on loneliness, depression, anxiety, and anxious depression in relation to demographic factors

From: Prevalence of loneliness and association with depressive and anxiety symptoms among retirees in Northcentral Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

VariableTotal sample
(N = 1099)
Loneliness 
ULS-8 scores,
M (SD)
Lonely
(n = 240)
Not lonely
(n = 859)
t (df), χ2 (df),
F (df)
 
Age groupn(%)   F (2,1096) = 0.681 
 65–69 Years254(23.1)20.32 (3.65)56 (22.0)198 (78.0)χ2 (2) = 3.960 
 70–74 years516(47.0)20.42 (3.72)124 (24.0)392 (76.0)  
 75 years & Above329(29.9)20.12 (3.32)60 (18.2)269 (81.8)  
Gender     t (1097) = −1.813 
 Male598(54.4)20.13 (3.50)112 (18.7)486 (81.3)χ2 (1) = 7.428 
 Female501(45.6)20.52 (3.68)128 (25.5)373 (74.5)  
Place of residence     t (1097) = − 1.108 
 Urban627(57.1)20.20 (3.64)127 (20.3)500 (79.7)χ2 (1) = 2.143 
 Rural472(42.9)20.45 (3.52)113 (23.9)359 (76.1)  
Level of education     F (2,1096) = 0.053 
 Primary education206(18.7)20.35 (3.47)46 (22.3)160 (77.7)χ2 (2) = 0.211 
 Secondary education380(34.6)20.34 (3.49)80 (21.1)300 (78.9)  
 Tertiary education513(46.7)20.27 (3.71)114 (22.1)399 (77.8)  
Marital Status     F (3,1095) = 1.407 
 Single178(16.2)20.05 (3.78)36 (20.2)142 (79.8)χ2 (3) = 3.103 
 Divorced/Separated226(20.6)20.58 (3.50)59 (26.1)167 (73.9)  
 Married591(53.8)20.36 (3.53)124 (21.0)467 (79.0)  
 Widowed104(9.5)19.83 (3.76)21 (20.2)83 (79.8)  
Monthly Income
(pension earning)
     F (3,1095) = 0.997 
  < #10,000402(36.6)20.29 (3.62)94 (23.4)308 (76.6)χ2 (3) = 1.240 
 #10,000-#19,000514(46.8)20.32 (3.58)109 (21.2)405 (78.8)  
 #20,000 - #29,000121(11.0)20.65 (3.50)23 (19.0)98 (81.0)  
 #30,000 & above62(5.6)19.68 (3.67)14 (22.2)48 (77.8)  
Depression, M (SD)     t (1097) = −0.755 
 Depressed571(52.0)20.22 (3.47)134 (23.5)437 (76.5)χ2 (1) = 1.849 
 Non-depressed528(48.0)20.39 (3.69)106 (20.1)422 (79.9)  
Anxiety, M (SD)     t (1097) = −1.066 
 Anxious304(27.7)20.24 (3.57)73 (24.0)231 (76.0)χ2 (1) = 1.165 
 Non-anxious795(72.3)20.49 (3.65)167 (21.0)628 (79.0)  
Anxious depression, M(SD)     t (1097) = − 0.416 
 Anxious depressed225(20.5)20.28 (3.57)186 (21.3)688 (78.7)χ2 (1) = 0.775 
 Non-anxious depressed874(79.5)20.40 (3.73)54 (24.0)171 (76.0)  
  1. Note. Depressed, DASS 21-D scores ≥ 21; Anxious, DASS 21-A scores ≥ 21