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Table 1 Baseline socioeconomic, demographic and health-related dementia risk factor characteristics according to dementia status by 2018 among those without dementia in 2012, National Health and Aging Trends Study (n = 5034)

From: Socioeconomic disparities in six-year incident dementia in a nationally representative cohort of U.S. older adults: an examination of financial resources

 No dementia by 2018
n = 4355 (89.5%)
Dementia by 2018
n = 679 (10.5%)
p value
Mean income to poverty ratio (mean income)4.97 ($66,020)3.23 ($43,524)0.211
 Among participants < 500% poverty (n = 2362, 46%)2.151.74< 0.001
 Among participants ≥500% poverty (n = 2672, 54%)13.3611.700.876
Financial strain (%)252 (5)79 (11)< 0.001
Education (%)  < 0.001
  < High school840 (16)234 (31) 
 High school1205 (28)186 (29) 
 Some college1161 (28)140 (21) 
  ≥ Bachelors1120 (29)115 (18) 
Professional occupationa (%)1626 (40)204 (33)0.003
Own home (%)  0.126
 Not homeowner897 (19)174 (26) 
 Paying mortgage978 (26)109 (18) 
 Mortgage fully paid2266 (55)340 (56) 
Retired (%)2305 (50)415 (62)< 0.001
Age (%)  < 0.001
 65–69 years1036 (34)57 (12) 
 70–74 years1065 (28)101 (19) 
 75–79 years905 (19)144 (23) 
 80–84 years772 (12)180 (24) 
 85–89 years390 (6)113 (14) 
  ≥ 90 years187 (2)84 (7) 
Gender (%)  0.001
 Male1883 (44)256 (38) 
 Female2472 (56)423 (62) 
Race/ethnicity (%)
 White3185 (85)431 (76)(ref.)
 Black844 (7)169 (10)0.004
 Hispanic188 (5)56 (10)0.001
 Other104 (3)17 (3)0.598
Mean BMI27.7726.970.006
Heart disease (%)922 (20)143 (21)0.355
High blood pressure (%)3011 (65)486 (70)0.081
Diabetes %1102 (23)195 (29)0.016
History of Stroke (%)71 (1)24 (4)0.001
Mean pack years smoking15.6215.710.941
 Ever smoked (%)2252 (53)334 (52)0.493
Depressive symptoms (%)490 (10)113 (17)< 0.001
  1. Note: 2012 sampling weights were used to represent the population of Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older
  2. a Classified as professional vs. all other occupational categories (i.e. service, sales/office, construction/farming, production, and homemaker) based on U.S. Census and longest held occupation