|First Author and Year Published||Continent||Inclusion Criteria||Study Design||Study Aim||Data Collection Methods||Sampling Strategy||Analysis Methods Used||Sample size (n) and mean age (age range)|
|Aspin et al. (2012) ||Australia||Participants who had a chronic illness AND/OR|
Care for a family member with chronic illness.
Examine the experiences of people living with at least one of three index conditions (diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or chronic heart failure)
|Qualitative||Focusing on Indigenous communities in Australia, this study reports on the perspectives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people affected by chronic illness and identifies approaches to combat the complexities associated with the increasing number of chronic illness.||One to one interviews||Purposive||Thematic Content||n = 19|
34–70 years of age
|Bell et al. (2015) ||Australia||It is evident that explicit criteria were not used to gather participants.|
However, if individuals expressed an interest in participating on the day of the focus group and completed the consent form then they could partake.
Assessors included had a mostly Aboriginal client base and were stationed in remote communities or in Alice Springs
|Qualitative||To examine the process of aged-care needs assessment for Aboriginal people in remote central Australia which then will be used to develop appropriate models of aged care.||One to one interviews|
|Purposive||Thematic||n = 11|
7 community members
Age not reported.
|Browne et al. (2014) ||North America||For kūpuna groups: Native Hawaiian (self-identified), 60 years of age and older, cognitively alert, and willing/able to participate in a 1.5 h meeting.|
For ‘ohana caregiver groups: Native Hawaiian (self-identified) and providing unpaid care to an elder family member in the past 12 months
|Qualitative||Examining the health needs and care preferences of community-dwelling nã-kūpuna (elders) and ‘ohana (family) caregivers in Hawai’i to make practice and policy recommendations||Focus groups||Purposive||Thematic||n = 24|
n = 17
Elders: 60–94 years of age (mean age 77)
Caregivers: 38–77 (mean age 57)
|Davis (2010) ||North America||Elders: self-identified as Native Hawaiian (full or part Hawaiian), aged > 60 years, who were currently living in Hawaii, noninstitutionalized, managing one or more chronic illness, and willing to participate in the study.|
Health care providers: self-identified as Native Hawaiian (full or part Hawaiian), were currently living in Hawaii, had experience in the health care field caring for the Native Hawaiian population, and were willing to share their ideas and perspectives.
|Qualitative||This study aimed to explore the perspectives of Native Hawaiian kūpuna residing in Hawaii who live with chronic illness, in terms of gathering their perceptions, experiences and meanings of care.|
The goal of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of the care needs of Native Hawaiian kūpuna, and use that information to guide nurses in education (specifically, in providing culturally competent care).
|One to one interviews (including photographs and field notes)||Purposive||Thematic||n = 15|
n = 5
health care providers
Elders: 60 to 93 years of age (mean age 74.6)
Health care providers: 40 to 60 years of age.
|Habjan et al. (2012) ||North America||Individuals from each of the 13 First Nations communities were selected based on caregiving experience. Respondents represented perspectives of: (a) Chief and Council; (b) health care providers; (c) Elder; and (d) community members who were 18 years of age or older and had experience providing care to elderly individuals.||Qualitative||To explore the perspectives and experiences of elderly members of 13 rural and remote First Nations communities in northwestern, Ontario.||One to one interviews|
|n = 260 participants (216 completed surveys)|
18 to 61 years of age and older.
|Lowell et al. (2012) ||Australia||Must be either: Yolngu staff, community members (caregivers or people with chronic illness) or non-Yolngu staff involved with care for chronic conditions||Qualitative||The aim of this study was to work in collaboration with Aboriginal people to identity the limitations in current health care practice and to identify improvement strategies for means of communication pertinent to chronic illness.||One to one interviews (including videotapes of interactions between clients and health staff)||Purposive||Grounded Theory|
|n = 33|
Yolngu health staff, clients, and other interested community members, and 8 health staff.
40 to 65 years of age.
|Schure et al. (2015) ||North America||Participants were enrolled tribal members, who were over 55 years old, residing in the tribe’s service area, noninstitutionalized, and passed a cognitive screen.||Cross-sectional||The objective was to explore the prevalence and associated correlates of unmet assistance needs for aging American Indians.||One to one interviews||Random||Descriptive|
Statistical- demographics and characteristics only
|n = 505|
Age groups: 55 to 64, 65 to 74, and ≥ 75
|Ward et al. (2011) ||Australia||Eligibility: individuals with one or more of the three conditions [type 2 diabetes (‘diabetes’), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic heart failure (CHF)] aged between 30 and 85 years.||Qualitative||The aim was to engage individuals’ living with chronic illness to gather information and report on the way family members offer support, self-management behaviour and more broadly, coping with a chronic illness.||One to one interviews|
|n = 16|
Indigenous and Torres Strait Islander Participants who had an illness, and 3 who cared for a family member with an illness
34 to 74 years of age.
|Waugh et al. (2011) ||Australia||Participants were Indigenous Australians aged 45 years and above who were comfortable speaking in English.||Qualitative||The aim of this study was to investigate the views of older Indigenous peoples on what they believe contributes to their health and wellbeing as they age.||One to one interviews (through the use of storytelling)||Purposive||Thematic||n = 6|
48 to 70 years of age (mean age of 59)