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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Association of timed up and go test outcomes with future incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults aged 66 years: Korean national representative longitudinal study over 5.7 years

 TotalNormalAbnormal 
N = 40,774 (%)N = 25,112 (%)N = 15,661 (%)P valueb
Sex (women) (%)21,690 (53.2)12,662 (50.4)9028 (57.7)<  0.001
Income, lowest quintile10,026 (24.6)6258 (24.9)3768 (24.1)0.029
Timed up and go (sec)9.4 ± 4.37.4 ± 1.412.5 ± 5.2<  0.001
BMI (kg/m2)a24.2 ± 3.024.2 ± 3.024.4 ± 3.1 
  < 18.5973 (2.4)603 (2.4)370 (2.4)< 0.001
 18.5–2313,017 (31.9)8140 (32.4)4877 (31.1)
 23–2511,236 (27.6)7070 (28.2)4166 (26.6)
  ≥ 2515,548 (38.1)9299 (37.0)6248 (39.9)
Cigarette smoking
 Never18.162 (70.2)11,089 (68.5)7072 (73.1)< 0.001
 Former3757 (14.5)2547 (15.7)1210 (13.0)
 Current3949 (15.3)2557 (15.8)1392 (14.0)
At-risk alcohol drinking12,483 (30.6)7842 (31.2)4641 (29.6)< 0.001
Regular exercise15,539 (38.1)9694 (38.6)5845 (37.3)< 0.001
Hypertension29,110 (71.4)17,668 (70.4)11,442 (73.1)< 0.001
Diabetes mellitus18,548 (45.5)11,233 (44.7)7315 (46.7)< 0.001
Dyslipidemia22,511 (55.2)13,826 (55.1)8685 (55.5)0.431
Chronic kidney disease1273 (3.1)770 (3.1)503 (3.2)0.411
Normal activity of daily living25,172 (96.6)15,635 (96.3)9536 (97.2)< 0.001
Normal cognition31,067 (77.9)19,249 (78.5)11,818 (76.9)< 0.001
Cardiovascular disease3111 (7.6)1745 (7.0)1366 (8.7)< 0.001
Cardiovascular death271 (0.7)137 (0.6)134 (0.9)< 0.001
All-cause death2146 (5.3)1207 (4.8)939 (6.0)< 0.001
  1. aAbbreviation: BMI body mass index
  2. b In comparison between normal and abnormal groups, Student t-test was used for continuous variables, and chi-square test was used for categorical variables
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